### Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

```Looks to be not LENR and not hydrogen related.  Similar thing happened with
no fuel.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 10:39 PM, torulf.gr...@bredband.net wrote:

I played with termite and stuff like that then I was young.

I ignited termite with gunpowder and it melted steel.

On Tue, 17 Mar 2015 21:08:17 -0500, Jack Cole jcol...@gmail.com wrote:

If it actually got hot enough to ignite the thermite, that might melt the
alumina.  I was thinking Bob said some time ago that it takes temps
somewhere above 2000C to ignite thermite.  I haven't done the calculations
for that yet.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 8:16 PM, torulf.gr...@bredband.net wrote:

Aluminium powder and Fe2O3 may give lots of heat in short time a termite
reaction.

Have you any calculations about how much energy this reaction may release?

On Tue, 17 Mar 2015 18:26:24 -0400, Axil Axil janap...@gmail.com wrote:

Steady accumulation of energy followed by its rapid release can result
in the delivery of a larger amount of instantaneous power over a shorter
period of time (although the total energy is the same). Energy is typically
stored within a circuit of the device. What happens is based on the circuit
of the dimmer.

By releasing the stored energy over a very short interval (a process that
is called energy compression), a huge amount of peak power can be delivered
to a load. For example, if one joule of energy is stored within a capacitor
and then evenly released to a load over one second, the peak power
delivered to the load would only be 1 watt. However, if all of the stored
energy were released within one microsecond, the peak power would be one
megawatt, a million times greater.

If the current rise is fast enough, the wire does not have enough time to
heat up, but the magnetic flux during the rise might be huge.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 6:09 PM, David L. Babcock olb...@gmail.com
wrote:

Very sharp -just means that the power is applied nearly
instantaneously. Not any more power, just whatever equals E2 /R.
However the temperature gradient would indeed be higher, so the wire would
expand sooner than the matrix around. If the matrix temperature rises and
falls a lot during a small part of a line cycle, stress might get pretty
high. But isn't the wire a near-zero expansion/temperature material?

Ol' Bab -who was an engineer...

On 3/17/2015 4:02 PM, Axil Axil wrote:

In these triac light dimmers, the rise/fall times are very sharp maybe
in the nanoseconds. That means that a lot of instantaneous power is being
feed into the heater wire as the power pulse starts when the leading edge
waveform is used.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 4:56 PM, Axil Axil janap...@gmail.com wrote:

According to Jack, the reaction did not happen in the fuel, but in the
insolating layer. The fuel composition does not matter. IMHP, what matters
is the exact nature of the heater current.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 4:38 PM, Robert Ellefson vortex-h...@e2ke.com
wrote:

Jack,

Fantastic!  I’m really stoked to hear of your progress.  I think your
powder recipe sounds very interesting, and I would love to know more about
the details of the reactants.  It sounds like you’ve come up with a
mixture
which may contain one or more key ingredients not yet identified as being
of primary significance to the high-gain modes of these systems.

If I may fire away:

What size Fe2O3 and TiH2 grains were present?

Is this mixture generally not hygroscopic, and therefore is curing the
reactor’s sealant a simple matter as compared to LAH?
Are you tumbling or milling these reactants, or performing any other
notable processing steps, prior to putting them into the reactors?

Thanks for sharing, and keep up the great work!

-Bob

*From:* Jack Cole [mailto:jcol...@gmail.com]
*Sent:* Tuesday, March 17, 2015 1:08 PM
*To:* vortex-l@eskimo.com

*Subject:* Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

Bob,

The input power was ~260W.  I don't know what the R value of the
insulation is.  I had the cell surrounded by high purity alumina powder
and
covered with a thin sheet of ceramic insulation.  I used standard 120V AC
60hz with a triac type dimmer switch (chops the waves starting at V=0).
I'll have to check with the manufacturer to see what the remaining 5% of
the tube is.  The heating element was Kanthal A1.  It's strange that the
heating element was able to completely melt at points.  In the past, it
has
always failed before melting.

I was using INCO type 255 nickel, TiH2, LiOh, KOH, aluminum powder,
and Fe2O3.  Good idea on the small amount of fuel which should cause some
localized melting.

The fact that the fuel was a small diameter cylinder seems to suggest
that it was fully expanded in the tube and shrunk down.

Jack

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 2:02 PM, Bob Cook frobertc...@hotmail.com
wrote:

Jack--

It looks like```

### Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

```

I played with termite and stuff like that then I was young.

I
ignited termite with gunpowder and it melted steel.

On Tue, 17 Mar
2015 21:08:17 -0500, Jack Cole  wrote:
If it actually got hot enough
to ignite the thermite, that might melt the alumina. I was thinking Bob
said some time ago that it takes temps somewhere above 2000C to ignite
thermite. I haven't done the calculations for that yet.

On Tue, Mar
17, 2015 at 8:16 PM,  wrote:

Aluminium powder and Fe2O3 may give lots
of heat in short time a termite reaction.

Have you any calculations
about how much energy this reaction may release?

On Tue, 17 Mar 2015
18:26:24 -0400, Axil Axil  wrote:

followed by its rapid release can result in the delivery of a larger
amount of instantaneous power over a shorter period of time (although
the total energy is the same). Energy is typically stored within a
circuit of the device. What happens is based on the circuit of the
dimmer.

By releasing the stored energy over a very short interval (a
process that is called energy compression), a huge amount of peak power
can be delivered to a load. For example, if one joule of energy is
stored within a capacitor and then evenly released to a load over one
second, the peak power delivered to the load would only be 1 watt.
However, if all of the stored energy were released within one
microsecond, the peak power would be one megawatt, a million times
greater.

If the current rise is fast enough, the wire does not have
enough time to heat up, but the magnetic flux during the rise might be
huge.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 6:09 PM, David L. Babcock
wrote:

Very sharp -just means that the power is applied nearly
instantaneously. Not any more power, just whatever equals E2 /R. However
the temperature gradient would indeed be higher, so the wire would
expand sooner than the matrix around. If the matrix temperature rises
and falls a lot during a small part of a line cycle, stress might get
pretty high. But isn't the wire a near-zero expansion/temperature
material?

Ol' Bab -who was an engineer...

On 3/17/2015 4:02 PM, Axil
Axil wrote:
In these triac light dimmers, the rise/fall times are very
sharp maybe in the nanoseconds. That means that a lot of instantaneous
power is being feed into the heater wire as the power pulse starts when
the leading edge waveform is used.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 4:56 PM,
Axil Axil  wrote:

According to Jack, the reaction did not happen in the
fuel, but in the insolating layer. The fuel composition does not matter.
IMHP, what matters is the exact nature of the heater current.

On Tue,
Mar 17, 2015 at 4:38 PM, Robert Ellefson  wrote:

Jack,

Fantastic! I'm
really stoked to hear of your progress. I think your powder recipe
sounds very interesting, and I would love to know more about the details
of the reactants. It sounds like you've come up with a mixture which may
contain one or more key ingredients not yet identified as being of
primary significance to the high-gain modes of these systems.

If I
may fire away:

What size Fe2O3 and TiH2 grains were present?

Is
this mixture generally not hygroscopic, and therefore is curing the
reactor's sealant a simple matter as compared to LAH?
Are you tumbling
or milling these reactants, or performing any other notable processing
steps, prior to putting them into the reactors?

Thanks for sharing,
and keep up the great work!

-Bob

FROM: Jack Cole
[mailto:jcol...@gmail.com [6]]
SENT: Tuesday, March 17, 2015 1:08
PM
TO: vortex-l@eskimo.com [7]

SUBJECT: Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

Bob,

The input power was ~260W. I don't know what the R value of
the insulation is. I had the cell surrounded by high purity alumina
powder and covered with a thin sheet of ceramic insulation. I used
standard 120V AC 60hz with a triac type dimmer switch (chops the waves
starting at V=0). I'll have to check with the manufacturer to see what
the remaining 5% of the tube is. The heating element was Kanthal A1.
It's strange that the heating element was able to completely melt at
points. In the past, it has always failed before melting.

I was using
INCO type 255 nickel, TiH2, LiOh, KOH, aluminum powder, and Fe2O3. Good
idea on the small amount of fuel which should cause some localized
melting.

The fact that the fuel was a small diameter cylinder seems
to suggest that it was fully expanded in the tube and shrunk down.

Jack

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 2:02 PM, Bob Cook  wrote:

Jack--

It looks like you had a pretty good reaction.

What was the input
power? What is the R value of the insulation on the outside of the
electric coils? What was the nature of the electrical input--frequency
etc? And what is the electrical heating element material? If you have an
acetylene torch, see if you can melt a piece of the tube that melted.

The tube may have had glass fibers incorporated in order to improve
strength. You indicated it was 95% pure. What was the other 5```

### Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

```It is possible that the LENR reaction was not carried inside the tube in
the fuel, but in the alumina cement that covered the heater wire. The
cement must have some residual water in it. Therefore, a sonoelectrochemistry
based mechanism might be producing nanoparticles in this cement and these
particles are the source of the reaction. If Jack runs the test without
fuel and the reaction still occurs, then look to the cement as the LENR
active element.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 3:12 PM, Axil Axil janap...@gmail.com wrote:

Dear Jack,

Congratulations. Anyone that has seen a meltdown, knows that LENR is real.

Your use of a pulses current may be what caused the LENR reaction to fire
up. Current pulses might be what the key is. The triac may be producing a
periodic sharp current rise and an associated magnetic field axially along
the length of the tube. This is what Brillouin does to excite their
reaction. Why the heat of the reaction is generated on the outside of the
fuel in the tube is new and mysterious.

The use of a pulsed current may be what makes this experiment more
productive than your others. Manipulation of the pulsed current may be the
way to start and then control the reaction.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 2:58 PM, Jack Cole jcol...@gmail.com wrote:

There doesn't appear to have been any melting inside the tube.  It's
interesting that the fuel formed a small diameter cylinder.  There was also
a small amount of fine powder left in the cell.

The fuel is shown in the picture (looks like a little stick).

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 11:39 AM, Jack Cole jcol...@gmail.com wrote:

To add a couple of more details.  The agglomerated piece of material is
extremely hard.  I tried to break it off with pliers, but it seemed like it
would take more force than to break the entire cell.  The resistance wire
is extremely difficult to separate from the cell. I plan to open the cell
with a diamond blade later today to see if more can be learned about what
took place (e.g., evidence of melting on the inside of tube).  I was able
to get one piece of the resistance wire pried from the tube.  There were
indentations in the cell.

As a follow-up experiment, I need to run it without the fuel to the same
power levels to see if the same effects occur.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 9:42 AM, Jack Cole jcol...@gmail.com wrote:

I had an interesting experiment yesterday.  This was my first time
using a triac to regulate input power and sealing the tube with a
compression fitting.  Unfortunately, my thermocouple failed.

Take a look at the alumina tube and the evidence for melting.  The
furnace sealant which I coated it with completely melted and agglomerated
to the bottom of the cell (also appears to be mixed with melted alumina).

The tube was purchased from China and is purportedly 95% pure.  It was
supposed to have a continuous operating temperature of 1500C.

Any opinions?

Jack

```

### Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

```Taking another look, I'm not certain melting didn't happen in the tube.
There is a color difference along the inner edge.  The metal coating may
obscure the alumina making it difficult to determine melting without a
microscope.

Also note this picture.  The color difference and ridge corresponds to
where the resistance wire was on the outside of the cell.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 3:56 PM, Axil Axil janap...@gmail.com wrote:

According to Jack, the reaction did not happen in the fuel, but in the
insolating layer. The fuel composition does not matter. IMHP, what matters
is the exact nature of the heater current.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 4:38 PM, Robert Ellefson vortex-h...@e2ke.com
wrote:

Jack,

Fantastic!  I’m really stoked to hear of your progress.  I think your
powder recipe sounds very interesting, and I would love to know more about
the details of the reactants.  It sounds like you’ve come up with a mixture
which may contain one or more key ingredients not yet identified as being
of primary significance to the high-gain modes of these systems.

If I may fire away:

What size Fe2O3 and TiH2 grains were present?

Is this mixture generally not hygroscopic, and therefore is curing the
reactor’s sealant a simple matter as compared to LAH?
Are you tumbling or milling these reactants, or performing any other
notable processing steps, prior to putting them into the reactors?

Thanks for sharing, and keep up the great work!

-Bob

*From:* Jack Cole [mailto:jcol...@gmail.com]
*Sent:* Tuesday, March 17, 2015 1:08 PM
*To:* vortex-l@eskimo.com

*Subject:* Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

Bob,

The input power was ~260W.  I don't know what the R value of the
insulation is.  I had the cell surrounded by high purity alumina powder and
covered with a thin sheet of ceramic insulation.  I used standard 120V AC
60hz with a triac type dimmer switch (chops the waves starting at V=0).
I'll have to check with the manufacturer to see what the remaining 5% of
the tube is.  The heating element was Kanthal A1.  It's strange that the
heating element was able to completely melt at points.  In the past, it has
always failed before melting.

I was using INCO type 255 nickel, TiH2, LiOh, KOH, aluminum powder, and
Fe2O3.  Good idea on the small amount of fuel which should cause some
localized melting.

The fact that the fuel was a small diameter cylinder seems to suggest
that it was fully expanded in the tube and shrunk down.

Jack

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 2:02 PM, Bob Cook frobertc...@hotmail.com
wrote:

Jack--

It looks like you had a pretty good reaction.

What was the input power?  What is the R value of the insulation on the
outside of the electric coils?  What was the nature of the electrical
input--frequency etc?  And what is the electrical heating element
material?   If you have an acetylene torch, see if you can melt a piece of
the tube that melted.

The tube may have had glass fibers incorporated in order to improve
strength.  You indicated it was 95% pure.  What was the other 5%?

What was you fuel mixture?  You may want to try a small fuel loading and
see if the same intense reaction happens--all else the same.

Try the test with a iron core instead of a fuel load and determine if
there is an apparent magnetic field which would hold the iron core in
position when direct current is applied to the heating coil.  An
alternating current would of course change the magnetic field and may
make for null reaction conditions.

Try 2 or 3 t/c's if you can--one inside and two outside to get a measure
of the temperature gradient along the tube.  Also another easy way to
determine temperatures is the use of thermal sticks on accessible
surfaces.  Welders use these to determine preheating temperatures.  They
may provide a cheap temperature measure for you.

Keep it shielded--good luck.

Bob

- Original Message -

*From:* Jack Cole jcol...@gmail.com

*To:* vortex-l@eskimo.com

*Sent:* Tuesday, March 17, 2015 9:39 AM

*Subject:* Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

To add a couple of more details.  The agglomerated piece of material is
extremely hard.  I tried to break it off with pliers, but it seemed like it
would take more force than to break the entire cell.  The resistance wire
is extremely difficult to separate from the cell. I plan to open the cell
with a diamond blade later today to see if more can be learned about what
took place (e.g., evidence of melting on the inside of tube).  I was able
to get one piece of the resistance wire pried from the tube.  There were
indentations in the cell.

As a follow-up experiment, I need to run it without the fuel to the same
power levels to see if the same effects occur.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 9:42 AM, Jack Cole jcol```

### Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

```Very sharp -just means that the power is applied nearly
instantaneously. Not any more power, just whatever equals E2 /R.
However the temperature gradient would indeed be higher, so the wire
would expand sooner than the matrix around. If the matrix temperature
rises and falls a lot during a small part of a line cycle, stress might
get pretty high. But isn't the wire a near-zero expansion/temperature
material?

Ol' Bab -who was an engineer...

On 3/17/2015 4:02 PM, Axil Axil wrote:
In these triac light dimmers, the rise/fall times are very sharp maybe
in the nanoseconds. That means that a lot of instantaneous power is
being feed into the heater wire as the power pulse starts when the

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 4:56 PM, Axil Axil janap...@gmail.com
mailto:janap...@gmail.com wrote:

According to Jack, the reaction did not happen in the fuel, but in
the insolating layer. The fuel composition does not matter. IMHP,
what matters is the exact nature of the heater current.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 4:38 PM, Robert Ellefson
vortex-h...@e2ke.com mailto:vortex-h...@e2ke.com wrote:

Jack,

Fantastic! I’m really stoked to hear of your progress.  I
think your powder recipe sounds very interesting, and I would
love to know more about the details of the reactants.  It
sounds like you’ve come up with a mixture which may contain
one or more key ingredients not yet identified as being of
primary significance to the high-gain modes of these systems.

If I may fire away:

What size Fe2O3 and TiH2 grains were present?

Is this mixture generally not hygroscopic, and therefore is
curing the reactor’s sealant a simple matter as compared to LAH?
Are you tumbling or milling these reactants, or performing any
other notable processing steps, prior to putting them into the
reactors?

Thanks for sharing, and keep up the great work!

-Bob

*From:*Jack Cole [mailto:jcol...@gmail.com
mailto:jcol...@gmail.com]
*Sent:* Tuesday, March 17, 2015 1:08 PM
*To:* vortex-l@eskimo.com mailto:vortex-l@eskimo.com

*Subject:* Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

Bob,

The input power was ~260W.  I don't know what the R value of
the insulation is.  I had the cell surrounded by high purity
alumina powder and covered with a thin sheet of ceramic
insulation.  I used standard 120V AC 60hz with a triac type
dimmer switch (chops the waves starting at V=0).  I'll have to
check with the manufacturer to see what the remaining 5% of
the tube is.  The heating element was Kanthal A1.  It's
strange that the heating element was able to completely melt
at points.  In the past, it has always failed before melting.

I was using INCO type 255 nickel, TiH2, LiOh, KOH, aluminum
powder, and Fe2O3.  Good idea on the small amount of fuel
which should cause some localized melting.

The fact that the fuel was a small diameter cylinder seems to
suggest that it was fully expanded in the tube and shrunk down.

Jack

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 2:02 PM, Bob Cook
frobertc...@hotmail.com mailto:frobertc...@hotmail.com wrote:

Jack--

It looks like you had a pretty good reaction.

What was the input power?  What is the R value of the
insulation on the outside of the electric coils?  What was
the nature of the electrical input--frequency etc? And
what is the electrical heating element material?   If you
have an acetylene torch, see if you can melt a piece of
the tube that melted.

The tube may have had glass fibers incorporated in order
to improve strength.  You indicated it was 95% pure.  What
was the other 5%?

What was you fuel mixture?  You may want to try a small
happens--all else the same.

Try the test with a iron core instead of a fuel load and
determine if there is an apparent magnetic field which
would hold the iron core in position when direct current
is applied to the heating coil.  An alternating current
would of course change the magnetic field and may make for
null reaction conditions.

Try 2 or 3 t/c's if you can--one inside and two outside
to get a measure of the temperature gradient along the
tube.  Also another easy way to determine temperatures is
the use of thermal sticks on accessible surfaces.  Welders
use these to determine preheating temperatures.  They may
provide a cheap temperature measure for you.

Keep it shielded--good luck```

### Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

```According to Jack, the reaction did not happen in the fuel, but in the
insolating layer. The fuel composition does not matter. IMHP, what matters
is the exact nature of the heater current.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 4:38 PM, Robert Ellefson vortex-h...@e2ke.com
wrote:

Jack,

Fantastic!  I’m really stoked to hear of your progress.  I think your
powder recipe sounds very interesting, and I would love to know more about
the details of the reactants.  It sounds like you’ve come up with a mixture
which may contain one or more key ingredients not yet identified as being
of primary significance to the high-gain modes of these systems.

If I may fire away:

What size Fe2O3 and TiH2 grains were present?

Is this mixture generally not hygroscopic, and therefore is curing the
reactor’s sealant a simple matter as compared to LAH?
Are you tumbling or milling these reactants, or performing any other
notable processing steps, prior to putting them into the reactors?

Thanks for sharing, and keep up the great work!

-Bob

*From:* Jack Cole [mailto:jcol...@gmail.com]
*Sent:* Tuesday, March 17, 2015 1:08 PM
*To:* vortex-l@eskimo.com

*Subject:* Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

Bob,

The input power was ~260W.  I don't know what the R value of the
insulation is.  I had the cell surrounded by high purity alumina powder and
covered with a thin sheet of ceramic insulation.  I used standard 120V AC
60hz with a triac type dimmer switch (chops the waves starting at V=0).
I'll have to check with the manufacturer to see what the remaining 5% of
the tube is.  The heating element was Kanthal A1.  It's strange that the
heating element was able to completely melt at points.  In the past, it has
always failed before melting.

I was using INCO type 255 nickel, TiH2, LiOh, KOH, aluminum powder, and
Fe2O3.  Good idea on the small amount of fuel which should cause some
localized melting.

The fact that the fuel was a small diameter cylinder seems to suggest that
it was fully expanded in the tube and shrunk down.

Jack

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 2:02 PM, Bob Cook frobertc...@hotmail.com wrote:

Jack--

It looks like you had a pretty good reaction.

What was the input power?  What is the R value of the insulation on the
outside of the electric coils?  What was the nature of the electrical
input--frequency etc?  And what is the electrical heating element
material?   If you have an acetylene torch, see if you can melt a piece of
the tube that melted.

The tube may have had glass fibers incorporated in order to improve
strength.  You indicated it was 95% pure.  What was the other 5%?

What was you fuel mixture?  You may want to try a small fuel loading and
see if the same intense reaction happens--all else the same.

Try the test with a iron core instead of a fuel load and determine if
there is an apparent magnetic field which would hold the iron core in
position when direct current is applied to the heating coil.  An
alternating current would of course change the magnetic field and may
make for null reaction conditions.

Try 2 or 3 t/c's if you can--one inside and two outside to get a measure
of the temperature gradient along the tube.  Also another easy way to
determine temperatures is the use of thermal sticks on accessible
surfaces.  Welders use these to determine preheating temperatures.  They
may provide a cheap temperature measure for you.

Keep it shielded--good luck.

Bob

- Original Message -

*From:* Jack Cole jcol...@gmail.com

*To:* vortex-l@eskimo.com

*Sent:* Tuesday, March 17, 2015 9:39 AM

*Subject:* Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

To add a couple of more details.  The agglomerated piece of material is
extremely hard.  I tried to break it off with pliers, but it seemed like it
would take more force than to break the entire cell.  The resistance wire
is extremely difficult to separate from the cell. I plan to open the cell
with a diamond blade later today to see if more can be learned about what
took place (e.g., evidence of melting on the inside of tube).  I was able
to get one piece of the resistance wire pried from the tube.  There were
indentations in the cell.

As a follow-up experiment, I need to run it without the fuel to the same
power levels to see if the same effects occur.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 9:42 AM, Jack Cole jcol...@gmail.com wrote:

I had an interesting experiment yesterday.  This was my first time using a
triac to regulate input power and sealing the tube with a compression
fitting.  Unfortunately, my thermocouple failed.

Take a look at the alumina tube and the evidence for melting.  The furnace
sealant which I coated it with completely melted and agglomerated to the
bottom of the cell (also appears to be mixed with melted alumina).

The tube was purchased from China and is purportedly 95```

### Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

```In these triac light dimmers, the rise/fall times are very sharp maybe in
the nanoseconds. That means that a lot of instantaneous power is being feed
into the heater wire as the power pulse starts when the leading edge
waveform is used.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 4:56 PM, Axil Axil janap...@gmail.com wrote:

According to Jack, the reaction did not happen in the fuel, but in the
insolating layer. The fuel composition does not matter. IMHP, what matters
is the exact nature of the heater current.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 4:38 PM, Robert Ellefson vortex-h...@e2ke.com
wrote:

Jack,

Fantastic!  I’m really stoked to hear of your progress.  I think your
powder recipe sounds very interesting, and I would love to know more about
the details of the reactants.  It sounds like you’ve come up with a mixture
which may contain one or more key ingredients not yet identified as being
of primary significance to the high-gain modes of these systems.

If I may fire away:

What size Fe2O3 and TiH2 grains were present?

Is this mixture generally not hygroscopic, and therefore is curing the
reactor’s sealant a simple matter as compared to LAH?
Are you tumbling or milling these reactants, or performing any other
notable processing steps, prior to putting them into the reactors?

Thanks for sharing, and keep up the great work!

-Bob

*From:* Jack Cole [mailto:jcol...@gmail.com]
*Sent:* Tuesday, March 17, 2015 1:08 PM
*To:* vortex-l@eskimo.com

*Subject:* Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

Bob,

The input power was ~260W.  I don't know what the R value of the
insulation is.  I had the cell surrounded by high purity alumina powder and
covered with a thin sheet of ceramic insulation.  I used standard 120V AC
60hz with a triac type dimmer switch (chops the waves starting at V=0).
I'll have to check with the manufacturer to see what the remaining 5% of
the tube is.  The heating element was Kanthal A1.  It's strange that the
heating element was able to completely melt at points.  In the past, it has
always failed before melting.

I was using INCO type 255 nickel, TiH2, LiOh, KOH, aluminum powder, and
Fe2O3.  Good idea on the small amount of fuel which should cause some
localized melting.

The fact that the fuel was a small diameter cylinder seems to suggest
that it was fully expanded in the tube and shrunk down.

Jack

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 2:02 PM, Bob Cook frobertc...@hotmail.com
wrote:

Jack--

It looks like you had a pretty good reaction.

What was the input power?  What is the R value of the insulation on the
outside of the electric coils?  What was the nature of the electrical
input--frequency etc?  And what is the electrical heating element
material?   If you have an acetylene torch, see if you can melt a piece of
the tube that melted.

The tube may have had glass fibers incorporated in order to improve
strength.  You indicated it was 95% pure.  What was the other 5%?

What was you fuel mixture?  You may want to try a small fuel loading and
see if the same intense reaction happens--all else the same.

Try the test with a iron core instead of a fuel load and determine if
there is an apparent magnetic field which would hold the iron core in
position when direct current is applied to the heating coil.  An
alternating current would of course change the magnetic field and may
make for null reaction conditions.

Try 2 or 3 t/c's if you can--one inside and two outside to get a measure
of the temperature gradient along the tube.  Also another easy way to
determine temperatures is the use of thermal sticks on accessible
surfaces.  Welders use these to determine preheating temperatures.  They
may provide a cheap temperature measure for you.

Keep it shielded--good luck.

Bob

- Original Message -

*From:* Jack Cole jcol...@gmail.com

*To:* vortex-l@eskimo.com

*Sent:* Tuesday, March 17, 2015 9:39 AM

*Subject:* Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

To add a couple of more details.  The agglomerated piece of material is
extremely hard.  I tried to break it off with pliers, but it seemed like it
would take more force than to break the entire cell.  The resistance wire
is extremely difficult to separate from the cell. I plan to open the cell
with a diamond blade later today to see if more can be learned about what
took place (e.g., evidence of melting on the inside of tube).  I was able
to get one piece of the resistance wire pried from the tube.  There were
indentations in the cell.

As a follow-up experiment, I need to run it without the fuel to the same
power levels to see if the same effects occur.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 9:42 AM, Jack Cole jcol...@gmail.com wrote:

I had an interesting experiment yesterday.  This was my first time using
a triac to regulate input power and sealing the tube with a compression
fitting.  Unfortunately, my thermocouple failed.

Take a look at the alumina tube and the evidence```

### Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

```The tube looks a little bent to me. Did the heat of melting come from the
inside out or the outside in?

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 5:38 PM, Jack Cole jcol...@gmail.com wrote:

Taking another look, I'm not certain melting didn't happen in the tube.
There is a color difference along the inner edge.  The metal coating may
obscure the alumina making it difficult to determine melting without a
microscope.

Also note this picture.  The color difference and ridge corresponds to
where the resistance wire was on the outside of the cell.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 3:56 PM, Axil Axil janap...@gmail.com wrote:

According to Jack, the reaction did not happen in the fuel, but in the
insolating layer. The fuel composition does not matter. IMHP, what matters
is the exact nature of the heater current.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 4:38 PM, Robert Ellefson vortex-h...@e2ke.com
wrote:

Jack,

Fantastic!  I’m really stoked to hear of your progress.  I think your
powder recipe sounds very interesting, and I would love to know more about
the details of the reactants.  It sounds like you’ve come up with a mixture
which may contain one or more key ingredients not yet identified as being
of primary significance to the high-gain modes of these systems.

If I may fire away:

What size Fe2O3 and TiH2 grains were present?

Is this mixture generally not hygroscopic, and therefore is curing the
reactor’s sealant a simple matter as compared to LAH?
Are you tumbling or milling these reactants, or performing any other
notable processing steps, prior to putting them into the reactors?

Thanks for sharing, and keep up the great work!

-Bob

*From:* Jack Cole [mailto:jcol...@gmail.com]
*Sent:* Tuesday, March 17, 2015 1:08 PM
*To:* vortex-l@eskimo.com

*Subject:* Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

Bob,

The input power was ~260W.  I don't know what the R value of the
insulation is.  I had the cell surrounded by high purity alumina powder and
covered with a thin sheet of ceramic insulation.  I used standard 120V AC
60hz with a triac type dimmer switch (chops the waves starting at V=0).
I'll have to check with the manufacturer to see what the remaining 5% of
the tube is.  The heating element was Kanthal A1.  It's strange that the
heating element was able to completely melt at points.  In the past, it has
always failed before melting.

I was using INCO type 255 nickel, TiH2, LiOh, KOH, aluminum powder, and
Fe2O3.  Good idea on the small amount of fuel which should cause some
localized melting.

The fact that the fuel was a small diameter cylinder seems to suggest
that it was fully expanded in the tube and shrunk down.

Jack

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 2:02 PM, Bob Cook frobertc...@hotmail.com
wrote:

Jack--

It looks like you had a pretty good reaction.

What was the input power?  What is the R value of the insulation on the
outside of the electric coils?  What was the nature of the electrical
input--frequency etc?  And what is the electrical heating element
material?   If you have an acetylene torch, see if you can melt a piece of
the tube that melted.

The tube may have had glass fibers incorporated in order to improve
strength.  You indicated it was 95% pure.  What was the other 5%?

What was you fuel mixture?  You may want to try a small fuel loading and
see if the same intense reaction happens--all else the same.

Try the test with a iron core instead of a fuel load and determine if
there is an apparent magnetic field which would hold the iron core in
position when direct current is applied to the heating coil.  An
alternating current would of course change the magnetic field and may
make for null reaction conditions.

Try 2 or 3 t/c's if you can--one inside and two outside to get a
measure of the temperature gradient along the tube.  Also another easy way
to determine temperatures is the use of thermal sticks on accessible
surfaces.  Welders use these to determine preheating temperatures.  They
may provide a cheap temperature measure for you.

Keep it shielded--good luck.

Bob

- Original Message -

*From:* Jack Cole jcol...@gmail.com

*To:* vortex-l@eskimo.com

*Sent:* Tuesday, March 17, 2015 9:39 AM

*Subject:* Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

To add a couple of more details.  The agglomerated piece of material is
extremely hard.  I tried to break it off with pliers, but it seemed like it
would take more force than to break the entire cell.  The resistance wire
is extremely difficult to separate from the cell. I plan to open the cell
with a diamond blade later today to see if more can be learned about what
took place (e.g., evidence of melting on the inside of tube).  I was able
to get one piece of the resistance wire pried from the tube.  There were
indentations```

### Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

```Unknown.  It would be hard to tell without more experiments.
On Mar 17, 2015 4:43 PM, Axil Axil janap...@gmail.com wrote:

The tube looks a little bent to me. Did the heat of melting come from the
inside out or the outside in?

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 5:38 PM, Jack Cole jcol...@gmail.com wrote:

Taking another look, I'm not certain melting didn't happen in the tube.
There is a color difference along the inner edge.  The metal coating may
obscure the alumina making it difficult to determine melting without a
microscope.

Also note this picture.  The color difference and ridge corresponds to
where the resistance wire was on the outside of the cell.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 3:56 PM, Axil Axil janap...@gmail.com wrote:

According to Jack, the reaction did not happen in the fuel, but in the
insolating layer. The fuel composition does not matter. IMHP, what matters
is the exact nature of the heater current.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 4:38 PM, Robert Ellefson vortex-h...@e2ke.com
wrote:

Jack,

Fantastic!  I’m really stoked to hear of your progress.  I think your
powder recipe sounds very interesting, and I would love to know more about
the details of the reactants.  It sounds like you’ve come up with a mixture
which may contain one or more key ingredients not yet identified as being
of primary significance to the high-gain modes of these systems.

If I may fire away:

What size Fe2O3 and TiH2 grains were present?

Is this mixture generally not hygroscopic, and therefore is curing the
reactor’s sealant a simple matter as compared to LAH?
Are you tumbling or milling these reactants, or performing any other
notable processing steps, prior to putting them into the reactors?

Thanks for sharing, and keep up the great work!

-Bob

*From:* Jack Cole [mailto:jcol...@gmail.com]
*Sent:* Tuesday, March 17, 2015 1:08 PM
*To:* vortex-l@eskimo.com

*Subject:* Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

Bob,

The input power was ~260W.  I don't know what the R value of the
insulation is.  I had the cell surrounded by high purity alumina powder and
covered with a thin sheet of ceramic insulation.  I used standard 120V AC
60hz with a triac type dimmer switch (chops the waves starting at V=0).
I'll have to check with the manufacturer to see what the remaining 5% of
the tube is.  The heating element was Kanthal A1.  It's strange that the
heating element was able to completely melt at points.  In the past, it has
always failed before melting.

I was using INCO type 255 nickel, TiH2, LiOh, KOH, aluminum powder, and
Fe2O3.  Good idea on the small amount of fuel which should cause some
localized melting.

The fact that the fuel was a small diameter cylinder seems to suggest
that it was fully expanded in the tube and shrunk down.

Jack

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 2:02 PM, Bob Cook frobertc...@hotmail.com
wrote:

Jack--

It looks like you had a pretty good reaction.

What was the input power?  What is the R value of the insulation on the
outside of the electric coils?  What was the nature of the electrical
input--frequency etc?  And what is the electrical heating element
material?   If you have an acetylene torch, see if you can melt a piece of
the tube that melted.

The tube may have had glass fibers incorporated in order to improve
strength.  You indicated it was 95% pure.  What was the other 5%?

What was you fuel mixture?  You may want to try a small fuel loading
and see if the same intense reaction happens--all else the same.

Try the test with a iron core instead of a fuel load and determine if
there is an apparent magnetic field which would hold the iron core in
position when direct current is applied to the heating coil.  An
alternating current would of course change the magnetic field and may
make for null reaction conditions.

Try 2 or 3 t/c's if you can--one inside and two outside to get a
measure of the temperature gradient along the tube.  Also another easy way
to determine temperatures is the use of thermal sticks on accessible
surfaces.  Welders use these to determine preheating temperatures.  They
may provide a cheap temperature measure for you.

Keep it shielded--good luck.

Bob

- Original Message -

*From:* Jack Cole jcol...@gmail.com

*To:* vortex-l@eskimo.com

*Sent:* Tuesday, March 17, 2015 9:39 AM

*Subject:* Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

To add a couple of more details.  The agglomerated piece of material is
extremely hard.  I tried to break it off with pliers, but it seemed like it
would take more force than to break the entire cell.  The resistance wire
is extremely difficult to separate from the cell. I plan to open the cell
with a diamond blade later today to see if more can be learned about what
took place (e.g., evidence of melting```

### Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

```There doesn't appear to have been any melting inside the tube.  It's
interesting that the fuel formed a small diameter cylinder.  There was also
a small amount of fine powder left in the cell.

The fuel is shown in the picture (looks like a little stick).

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 11:39 AM, Jack Cole jcol...@gmail.com wrote:

To add a couple of more details.  The agglomerated piece of material is
extremely hard.  I tried to break it off with pliers, but it seemed like it
would take more force than to break the entire cell.  The resistance wire
is extremely difficult to separate from the cell. I plan to open the cell
with a diamond blade later today to see if more can be learned about what
took place (e.g., evidence of melting on the inside of tube).  I was able
to get one piece of the resistance wire pried from the tube.  There were
indentations in the cell.

As a follow-up experiment, I need to run it without the fuel to the same
power levels to see if the same effects occur.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 9:42 AM, Jack Cole jcol...@gmail.com wrote:

I had an interesting experiment yesterday.  This was my first time using
a triac to regulate input power and sealing the tube with a compression
fitting.  Unfortunately, my thermocouple failed.

Take a look at the alumina tube and the evidence for melting.  The
furnace sealant which I coated it with completely melted and agglomerated
to the bottom of the cell (also appears to be mixed with melted alumina).

The tube was purchased from China and is purportedly 95% pure.  It was
supposed to have a continuous operating temperature of 1500C.

Any opinions?

Jack

```

### Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

```Jack--

It looks like you had a pretty good reaction.

What was the input power?  What is the R value of the insulation on the outside
of the electric coils?  What was the nature of the electrical input--frequency
etc?  And what is the electrical heating element material?   If you have an
acetylene torch, see if you can melt a piece of the tube that melted.

The tube may have had glass fibers incorporated in order to improve strength.
You indicated it was 95% pure.  What was the other 5%?

What was you fuel mixture?  You may want to try a small fuel loading and see if
the same intense reaction happens--all else the same.

Try the test with a iron core instead of a fuel load and determine if there is
an apparent magnetic field which would hold the iron core in position when
direct current is applied to the heating coil.  An alternating current would of
course change the magnetic field and may make for null reaction conditions.

Try 2 or 3 t/c's if you can--one inside and two outside to get a measure of
the temperature gradient along the tube.  Also another easy way to determine
temperatures is the use of thermal sticks on accessible surfaces.  Welders use
these to determine preheating temperatures.  They may provide a cheap
temperature measure for you.

Keep it shielded--good luck.

Bob
- Original Message -
From: Jack Cole
To: vortex-l@eskimo.com
Sent: Tuesday, March 17, 2015 9:39 AM
Subject: Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

To add a couple of more details.  The agglomerated piece of material is
extremely hard.  I tried to break it off with pliers, but it seemed like it
would take more force than to break the entire cell.  The resistance wire is
extremely difficult to separate from the cell. I plan to open the cell with a
diamond blade later today to see if more can be learned about what took place
(e.g., evidence of melting on the inside of tube).  I was able to get one piece
of the resistance wire pried from the tube.  There were indentations in the
cell.

As a follow-up experiment, I need to run it without the fuel to the same
power levels to see if the same effects occur.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 9:42 AM, Jack Cole jcol...@gmail.com wrote:

I had an interesting experiment yesterday.  This was my first time using a
triac to regulate input power and sealing the tube with a compression fitting.
Unfortunately, my thermocouple failed.

Take a look at the alumina tube and the evidence for melting.  The furnace
sealant which I coated it with completely melted and agglomerated to the bottom
of the cell (also appears to be mixed with melted alumina).

The tube was purchased from China and is purportedly 95% pure.  It was
supposed to have a continuous operating temperature of 1500C.

Any opinions?

Jack

```

### Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

```

Aluminium powder and Fe2O3 may give lots of heat in short time a
termite reaction.

Have you any calculations about how much energy this
reaction may release?

On Tue, 17 Mar 2015 18:26:24 -0400, Axil Axil
wrote:

Steady accumulation of energy followed by its rapid release
can result in the delivery of a larger amount of instantaneous power
over a shorter period of time (although the total energy is the same).
Energy is typically stored within a circuit of the device. What happens
is based on the circuit of the dimmer.

By releasing the stored energy
over a very short interval (a process that is called energy
compression), a huge amount of peak power can be delivered to a load.
For example, if one joule of energy is stored within a capacitor and
then evenly released to a load over one second, the peak power delivered
to the load would only be 1 watt. However, if all of the stored energy
were released within one microsecond, the peak power would be one
megawatt, a million times greater.

If the current rise is fast
enough, the wire does not have enough time to heat up, but the magnetic
flux during the rise might be huge.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 6:09 PM,
David L. Babcock  wrote:

Very sharp -just means that the power is
applied nearly instantaneously. Not any more power, just whatever equals
E2 /R. However the temperature gradient would indeed be higher, so the
wire would expand sooner than the matrix around. If the matrix
temperature rises and falls a lot during a small part of a line cycle,
stress might get pretty high. But isn't the wire a near-zero
expansion/temperature material?

Ol' Bab -who was an engineer...

On
3/17/2015 4:02 PM, Axil Axil wrote:
In these triac light dimmers, the
rise/fall times are very sharp maybe in the nanoseconds. That means that
a lot of instantaneous power is being feed into the heater wire as the
power pulse starts when the leading edge waveform is used.

On Tue, Mar
17, 2015 at 4:56 PM, Axil Axil  wrote:

According to Jack, the reaction
did not happen in the fuel, but in the insolating layer. The fuel
composition does not matter. IMHP, what matters is the exact nature of
the heater current.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 4:38 PM, Robert Ellefson
wrote:

Jack,

Fantastic! I'm really stoked to hear of your progress. I
think your powder recipe sounds very interesting, and I would love to
know more about the details of the reactants. It sounds like you've come
up with a mixture which may contain one or more key ingredients not yet
identified as being of primary significance to the high-gain modes of
these systems.

If I may fire away:

What size Fe2O3 and TiH2 grains
were present?

Is this mixture generally not hygroscopic, and
therefore is curing the reactor's sealant a simple matter as compared to
LAH?
Are you tumbling or milling these reactants, or performing any
other notable processing steps, prior to putting them into the reactors?

Thanks for sharing, and keep up the great work!

-Bob

FROM: Jack
Cole [mailto:jcol...@gmail.com [4]]
SENT: Tuesday, March 17, 2015 1:08
PM
TO: vortex-l@eskimo.com [5]

SUBJECT: Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

Bob,

The input power was ~260W. I don't know what the R value of
the insulation is. I had the cell surrounded by high purity alumina
powder and covered with a thin sheet of ceramic insulation. I used
standard 120V AC 60hz with a triac type dimmer switch (chops the waves
starting at V=0). I'll have to check with the manufacturer to see what
the remaining 5% of the tube is. The heating element was Kanthal A1.
It's strange that the heating element was able to completely melt at
points. In the past, it has always failed before melting.

I was using
INCO type 255 nickel, TiH2, LiOh, KOH, aluminum powder, and Fe2O3. Good
idea on the small amount of fuel which should cause some localized
melting.

The fact that the fuel was a small diameter cylinder seems
to suggest that it was fully expanded in the tube and shrunk down.

Jack

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 2:02 PM, Bob Cook  wrote:

Jack--

It looks like you had a pretty good reaction.

What was the input
power? What is the R value of the insulation on the outside of the
electric coils? What was the nature of the electrical input--frequency
etc? And what is the electrical heating element material? If you have an
acetylene torch, see if you can melt a piece of the tube that melted.

The tube may have had glass fibers incorporated in order to improve
strength. You indicated it was 95% pure. What was the other 5%?

What
was you fuel mixture? You may want to try a small fuel loading and see
if the same intense reaction happens--all else the same.

Try the
test with a iron core instead of a fuel load and determine if there is
an apparent magnetic field which would hold the iron core in position
when direct current is applied to the heating coil. An alternating
current would of course change the magnetic field and may make for null
reaction conditions```

### Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

```If it actually got hot enough to ignite the thermite, that might melt the
alumina.  I was thinking Bob said some time ago that it takes temps
somewhere above 2000C to ignite thermite.  I haven't done the calculations
for that yet.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 8:16 PM, torulf.gr...@bredband.net wrote:

Aluminium powder and Fe2O3 may give lots of heat in short time a termite
reaction.

Have you any calculations about how much energy this reaction may release?

On Tue, 17 Mar 2015 18:26:24 -0400, Axil Axil janap...@gmail.com wrote:

Steady accumulation of energy followed by its rapid release can result
in the delivery of a larger amount of instantaneous power over a shorter
period of time (although the total energy is the same). Energy is typically
stored within a circuit of the device. What happens is based on the circuit
of the dimmer.

By releasing the stored energy over a very short interval (a process that
is called energy compression), a huge amount of peak power can be delivered
to a load. For example, if one joule of energy is stored within a capacitor
and then evenly released to a load over one second, the peak power
delivered to the load would only be 1 watt. However, if all of the stored
energy were released within one microsecond, the peak power would be one
megawatt, a million times greater.

If the current rise is fast enough, the wire does not have enough time to
heat up, but the magnetic flux during the rise might be huge.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 6:09 PM, David L. Babcock olb...@gmail.com
wrote:

Very sharp -just means that the power is applied nearly
instantaneously. Not any more power, just whatever equals E2 /R.
However the temperature gradient would indeed be higher, so the wire would
expand sooner than the matrix around. If the matrix temperature rises and
falls a lot during a small part of a line cycle, stress might get pretty
high. But isn't the wire a near-zero expansion/temperature material?

Ol' Bab -who was an engineer...

On 3/17/2015 4:02 PM, Axil Axil wrote:

In these triac light dimmers, the rise/fall times are very sharp maybe in
the nanoseconds. That means that a lot of instantaneous power is being feed
into the heater wire as the power pulse starts when the leading edge
waveform is used.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 4:56 PM, Axil Axil janap...@gmail.com wrote:

According to Jack, the reaction did not happen in the fuel, but in the
insolating layer. The fuel composition does not matter. IMHP, what matters
is the exact nature of the heater current.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 4:38 PM, Robert Ellefson vortex-h...@e2ke.com
wrote:

Jack,

Fantastic!  I’m really stoked to hear of your progress.  I think your
powder recipe sounds very interesting, and I would love to know more about
the details of the reactants.  It sounds like you’ve come up with a mixture
which may contain one or more key ingredients not yet identified as being
of primary significance to the high-gain modes of these systems.

If I may fire away:

What size Fe2O3 and TiH2 grains were present?

Is this mixture generally not hygroscopic, and therefore is curing the
reactor’s sealant a simple matter as compared to LAH?
Are you tumbling or milling these reactants, or performing any other
notable processing steps, prior to putting them into the reactors?

Thanks for sharing, and keep up the great work!

-Bob

*From:* Jack Cole [mailto:jcol...@gmail.com]
*Sent:* Tuesday, March 17, 2015 1:08 PM
*To:* vortex-l@eskimo.com

*Subject:* Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

Bob,

The input power was ~260W.  I don't know what the R value of the
insulation is.  I had the cell surrounded by high purity alumina powder and
covered with a thin sheet of ceramic insulation.  I used standard 120V AC
60hz with a triac type dimmer switch (chops the waves starting at V=0).
I'll have to check with the manufacturer to see what the remaining 5% of
the tube is.  The heating element was Kanthal A1.  It's strange that the
heating element was able to completely melt at points.  In the past, it has
always failed before melting.

I was using INCO type 255 nickel, TiH2, LiOh, KOH, aluminum powder, and
Fe2O3.  Good idea on the small amount of fuel which should cause some
localized melting.

The fact that the fuel was a small diameter cylinder seems to suggest
that it was fully expanded in the tube and shrunk down.

Jack

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 2:02 PM, Bob Cook frobertc...@hotmail.com
wrote:

Jack--

It looks like you had a pretty good reaction.

What was the input power?  What is the R value of the insulation on the
outside of the electric coils?  What was the nature of the electrical
input--frequency etc?  And what is the electrical heating element
material?   If you have an acetylene torch, see if you can melt a piece of
the tube that melted.

The tube may have had glass fibers incorporated in order to improve
strength.  You indicated```

### Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

```The hydrogen combustion theory does not explain why the heat is restricted
primarily to the outside of the tube. The adulterated tube material would
have a lower melting temperature than the pure alumina powder covering.
Hydrogen that is coming from inside the tube would melt the tube as well as
the alumina power covering it. There is no localization of tube melting
where the tube would be fractured. The tube as the origin of the hydrogen
would have been exposed to a higher heat than the insolated covering. The
alumina covering and the heater wire looks like it is totally melted and
not subjected to the concentration of hot spot melting.

View
Hide
[image: Thumbnail]

The mark on the inner surface of the tube looks like the alumna in contact
with the heater wire was melted.

Furthermore, the heater wire looks like it is melted along its entire
length which means the wire was subjected to extreme heat equally applied
along the entire length of the tube.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 10:42 AM, Jack Cole jcol...@gmail.com wrote:

I had an interesting experiment yesterday.  This was my first time using a
triac to regulate input power and sealing the tube with a compression
fitting.  Unfortunately, my thermocouple failed.

Take a look at the alumina tube and the evidence for melting.  The furnace
sealant which I coated it with completely melted and agglomerated to the
bottom of the cell (also appears to be mixed with melted alumina).

The tube was purchased from China and is purportedly 95% pure.  It was
supposed to have a continuous operating temperature of 1500C.

Any opinions?

Jack

```

### Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

```Steady accumulation of energy followed by its rapid release can result in
the delivery of a larger amount of instantaneous power over a shorter
period of time (although the total energy is the same). Energy is typically
stored within a circuit of the device. What happens is based on the circuit
of the dimmer.

By releasing the stored energy over a very short interval (a process that
is called energy compression), a huge amount of peak power can be delivered
to a load. For example, if one joule of energy is stored within a capacitor
and then evenly released to a load over one second, the peak power
delivered to the load would only be 1 watt. However, if all of the stored
energy were released within one microsecond, the peak power would be one
megawatt, a million times greater.

If the current rise is fast enough, the wire does not have enough time to
heat up, but the magnetic flux during the rise might be huge.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 6:09 PM, David L. Babcock olb...@gmail.com wrote:

Very sharp -just means that the power is applied nearly
instantaneously. Not any more power, just whatever equals E2 /R.  However
the temperature gradient would indeed be higher, so the wire would expand
sooner than the matrix around. If the matrix temperature rises and falls a
lot during a small part of a line cycle, stress might get pretty high. But
isn't the wire a near-zero expansion/temperature material?

Ol' Bab -who was an engineer...

On 3/17/2015 4:02 PM, Axil Axil wrote:

In these triac light dimmers, the rise/fall times are very sharp maybe in
the nanoseconds. That means that a lot of instantaneous power is being feed
into the heater wire as the power pulse starts when the leading edge
waveform is used.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 4:56 PM, Axil Axil janap...@gmail.com wrote:

According to Jack, the reaction did not happen in the fuel, but in the
insolating layer. The fuel composition does not matter. IMHP, what matters
is the exact nature of the heater current.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 4:38 PM, Robert Ellefson vortex-h...@e2ke.com
wrote:

Jack,

Fantastic!  I’m really stoked to hear of your progress.  I think your
powder recipe sounds very interesting, and I would love to know more about
the details of the reactants.  It sounds like you’ve come up with a mixture
which may contain one or more key ingredients not yet identified as being
of primary significance to the high-gain modes of these systems.

If I may fire away:

What size Fe2O3 and TiH2 grains were present?

Is this mixture generally not hygroscopic, and therefore is curing the
reactor’s sealant a simple matter as compared to LAH?
Are you tumbling or milling these reactants, or performing any other
notable processing steps, prior to putting them into the reactors?

Thanks for sharing, and keep up the great work!

-Bob

*From:* Jack Cole [mailto:jcol...@gmail.com]
*Sent:* Tuesday, March 17, 2015 1:08 PM
*To:* vortex-l@eskimo.com

*Subject:* Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

Bob,

The input power was ~260W.  I don't know what the R value of the
insulation is.  I had the cell surrounded by high purity alumina powder and
covered with a thin sheet of ceramic insulation.  I used standard 120V AC
60hz with a triac type dimmer switch (chops the waves starting at V=0).
I'll have to check with the manufacturer to see what the remaining 5% of
the tube is.  The heating element was Kanthal A1.  It's strange that the
heating element was able to completely melt at points.  In the past, it has
always failed before melting.

I was using INCO type 255 nickel, TiH2, LiOh, KOH, aluminum powder, and
Fe2O3.  Good idea on the small amount of fuel which should cause some
localized melting.

The fact that the fuel was a small diameter cylinder seems to suggest
that it was fully expanded in the tube and shrunk down.

Jack

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 2:02 PM, Bob Cook frobertc...@hotmail.com
wrote:

Jack--

It looks like you had a pretty good reaction.

What was the input power?  What is the R value of the insulation on the
outside of the electric coils?  What was the nature of the electrical
input--frequency etc?  And what is the electrical heating element
material?   If you have an acetylene torch, see if you can melt a piece of
the tube that melted.

The tube may have had glass fibers incorporated in order to improve
strength.  You indicated it was 95% pure.  What was the other 5%?

What was you fuel mixture?  You may want to try a small fuel loading and
see if the same intense reaction happens--all else the same.

Try the test with a iron core instead of a fuel load and determine if
there is an apparent magnetic field which would hold the iron core in
position when direct current is applied to the heating coil.  An
alternating current would of course change the magnetic field and may
make for null reaction conditions.

Try 2 or 3 t/c's if you can--one inside and two outside```

### RE: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

```Jack,

Fantastic!  I’m really stoked to hear of your progress.  I think your powder
recipe sounds very interesting, and I would love to know more about the details
of the reactants.  It sounds like you’ve come up with a mixture which may
contain one or more key ingredients not yet identified as being of primary
significance to the high-gain modes of these systems.

If I may fire away:

What size Fe2O3 and TiH2 grains were present?

Is this mixture generally not hygroscopic, and therefore is curing the
reactor’s sealant a simple matter as compared to LAH?
Are you tumbling or milling these reactants, or performing any other notable
processing steps, prior to putting them into the reactors?

Thanks for sharing, and keep up the great work!

-Bob

From: Jack Cole [mailto:jcol...@gmail.com]
Sent: Tuesday, March 17, 2015 1:08 PM
To: vortex-l@eskimo.com
Subject: Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

Bob,

The input power was ~260W.  I don't know what the R value of the insulation is.
I had the cell surrounded by high purity alumina powder and covered with a
thin sheet of ceramic insulation.  I used standard 120V AC 60hz with a triac
type dimmer switch (chops the waves starting at V=0).  I'll have to check with
the manufacturer to see what the remaining 5% of the tube is.  The heating
element was Kanthal A1.  It's strange that the heating element was able to
completely melt at points.  In the past, it has always failed before melting.

I was using INCO type 255 nickel, TiH2, LiOh, KOH, aluminum powder, and Fe2O3.
Good idea on the small amount of fuel which should cause some localized melting.

The fact that the fuel was a small diameter cylinder seems to suggest that it
was fully expanded in the tube and shrunk down.

Jack

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 2:02 PM, Bob Cook frobertc...@hotmail.com
mailto:frobertc...@hotmail.com  wrote:

Jack--

It looks like you had a pretty good reaction.

What was the input power?  What is the R value of the insulation on the outside
of the electric coils?  What was the nature of the electrical input--frequency
etc?  And what is the electrical heating element material?   If you have an
acetylene torch, see if you can melt a piece of the tube that melted.

The tube may have had glass fibers incorporated in order to improve strength.
You indicated it was 95% pure.  What was the other 5%?

What was you fuel mixture?  You may want to try a small fuel loading and see if
the same intense reaction happens--all else the same.

Try the test with a iron core instead of a fuel load and determine if there is
an apparent magnetic field which would hold the iron core in position when
direct current is applied to the heating coil.  An alternating current would of
course change the magnetic field and may make for null reaction conditions.

Try 2 or 3 t/c's if you can--one inside and two outside to get a measure of
the temperature gradient along the tube.  Also another easy way to determine
temperatures is the use of thermal sticks on accessible surfaces.  Welders use
these to determine preheating temperatures.  They may provide a cheap
temperature measure for you.

Keep it shielded--good luck.

Bob

- Original Message -

From: Jack Cole mailto:jcol...@gmail.com

To: vortex-l@eskimo.com mailto:vortex-l@eskimo.com

Sent: Tuesday, March 17, 2015 9:39 AM

Subject: Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

To add a couple of more details.  The agglomerated piece of material is
extremely hard.  I tried to break it off with pliers, but it seemed like it
would take more force than to break the entire cell.  The resistance wire is
extremely difficult to separate from the cell. I plan to open the cell with a
diamond blade later today to see if more can be learned about what took place
(e.g., evidence of melting on the inside of tube).  I was able to get one piece
of the resistance wire pried from the tube.  There were indentations in the
cell.

As a follow-up experiment, I need to run it without the fuel to the same power
levels to see if the same effects occur.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 9:42 AM, Jack Cole jcol...@gmail.com
mailto:jcol...@gmail.com  wrote:

I had an interesting experiment yesterday.  This was my first time using a
triac to regulate input power and sealing the tube with a compression fitting.
Unfortunately, my thermocouple failed.

Take a look at the alumina tube and the evidence for melting.  The furnace
sealant which I coated it with completely melted and agglomerated to the bottom
of the cell (also appears to be mixed with melted alumina).

The tube was purchased from China and is purportedly 95% pure.  It was supposed
to have a continuous operating temperature of 1500C.

Any opinions?

Jack

```

### Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

```Dear Jack,

Congratulations. Anyone that has seen a meltdown, knows that LENR is real.

Your use of a pulses current may be what caused the LENR reaction to fire
up. Current pulses might be what the key is. The triac may be producing a
periodic sharp current rise and an associated magnetic field axially along
the length of the tube. This is what Brillouin does to excite their
reaction. Why the heat of the reaction is generated on the outside of the
fuel in the tube is new and mysterious.

The use of a pulsed current may be what makes this experiment more
productive than your others. Manipulation of the pulsed current may be the
way to start and then control the reaction.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 2:58 PM, Jack Cole jcol...@gmail.com wrote:

There doesn't appear to have been any melting inside the tube.  It's
interesting that the fuel formed a small diameter cylinder.  There was also
a small amount of fine powder left in the cell.

The fuel is shown in the picture (looks like a little stick).

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 11:39 AM, Jack Cole jcol...@gmail.com wrote:

To add a couple of more details.  The agglomerated piece of material is
extremely hard.  I tried to break it off with pliers, but it seemed like it
would take more force than to break the entire cell.  The resistance wire
is extremely difficult to separate from the cell. I plan to open the cell
with a diamond blade later today to see if more can be learned about what
took place (e.g., evidence of melting on the inside of tube).  I was able
to get one piece of the resistance wire pried from the tube.  There were
indentations in the cell.

As a follow-up experiment, I need to run it without the fuel to the same
power levels to see if the same effects occur.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 9:42 AM, Jack Cole jcol...@gmail.com wrote:

I had an interesting experiment yesterday.  This was my first time using
a triac to regulate input power and sealing the tube with a compression
fitting.  Unfortunately, my thermocouple failed.

Take a look at the alumina tube and the evidence for melting.  The
furnace sealant which I coated it with completely melted and agglomerated
to the bottom of the cell (also appears to be mixed with melted alumina).

The tube was purchased from China and is purportedly 95% pure.  It was
supposed to have a continuous operating temperature of 1500C.

Any opinions?

Jack

```

### Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

```Bob,

The input power was ~260W.  I don't know what the R value of the insulation
is.  I had the cell surrounded by high purity alumina powder and covered
with a thin sheet of ceramic insulation.  I used standard 120V AC 60hz with
a triac type dimmer switch (chops the waves starting at V=0).  I'll have to
check with the manufacturer to see what the remaining 5% of the tube is.
The heating element was Kanthal A1.  It's strange that the heating element
was able to completely melt at points.  In the past, it has always failed
before melting.

I was using INCO type 255 nickel, TiH2, LiOh, KOH, aluminum powder, and
Fe2O3.  Good idea on the small amount of fuel which should cause some
localized melting.

The fact that the fuel was a small diameter cylinder seems to suggest that
it was fully expanded in the tube and shrunk down.

Jack

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 2:02 PM, Bob Cook frobertc...@hotmail.com wrote:

Jack--

It looks like you had a pretty good reaction.

What was the input power?  What is the R value of the insulation on the
outside of the electric coils?  What was the nature of the electrical
input--frequency etc?  And what is the electrical heating element
material?   If you have an acetylene torch, see if you can melt a piece of
the tube that melted.

The tube may have had glass fibers incorporated in order to improve
strength.  You indicated it was 95% pure.  What was the other 5%?

What was you fuel mixture?  You may want to try a small fuel loading and
see if the same intense reaction happens--all else the same.

Try the test with a iron core instead of a fuel load and determine if
there is an apparent magnetic field which would hold the iron core in
position when direct current is applied to the heating coil.  An
alternating current would of course change the magnetic field and may
make for null reaction conditions.

Try 2 or 3 t/c's if you can--one inside and two outside to get a measure
of the temperature gradient along the tube.  Also another easy way to
determine temperatures is the use of thermal sticks on accessible
surfaces.  Welders use these to determine preheating temperatures.  They
may provide a cheap temperature measure for you.

Keep it shielded--good luck.

Bob

- Original Message -
*From:* Jack Cole jcol...@gmail.com
*To:* vortex-l@eskimo.com
*Sent:* Tuesday, March 17, 2015 9:39 AM
*Subject:* Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

To add a couple of more details.  The agglomerated piece of material is
extremely hard.  I tried to break it off with pliers, but it seemed like it
would take more force than to break the entire cell.  The resistance wire
is extremely difficult to separate from the cell. I plan to open the cell
with a diamond blade later today to see if more can be learned about what
took place (e.g., evidence of melting on the inside of tube).  I was able
to get one piece of the resistance wire pried from the tube.  There were
indentations in the cell.

As a follow-up experiment, I need to run it without the fuel to the same
power levels to see if the same effects occur.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 9:42 AM, Jack Cole jcol...@gmail.com wrote:

I had an interesting experiment yesterday.  This was my first time
using a triac to regulate input power and sealing the tube with a
compression fitting.  Unfortunately, my thermocouple failed.

Take a look at the alumina tube and the evidence for melting.  The
furnace sealant which I coated it with completely melted and agglomerated
to the bottom of the cell (also appears to be mixed with melted alumina).

The tube was purchased from China and is purportedly 95% pure.  It was
supposed to have a continuous operating temperature of 1500C.

Any opinions?

Jack

```

### Re: [Vo]:melted alumina tube

```To add a couple of more details.  The agglomerated piece of material is
extremely hard.  I tried to break it off with pliers, but it seemed like it
would take more force than to break the entire cell.  The resistance wire
is extremely difficult to separate from the cell. I plan to open the cell
with a diamond blade later today to see if more can be learned about what
took place (e.g., evidence of melting on the inside of tube).  I was able
to get one piece of the resistance wire pried from the tube.  There were
indentations in the cell.

As a follow-up experiment, I need to run it without the fuel to the same
power levels to see if the same effects occur.

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 9:42 AM, Jack Cole jcol...@gmail.com wrote:

I had an interesting experiment yesterday.  This was my first time using a
triac to regulate input power and sealing the tube with a compression
fitting.  Unfortunately, my thermocouple failed.

Take a look at the alumina tube and the evidence for melting.  The furnace
sealant which I coated it with completely melted and agglomerated to the
bottom of the cell (also appears to be mixed with melted alumina).