Here in Australia they started off as rough areas based on local knowledge
and signage on the ground but now have mostly been replaced with imported
open data from the government.These legally declared boundaries are usually
declared based on parcels from the cadastre and so the open data usually
matches up with the cadastral polygons. A lot of these boundaries came from
CAPAD data https://www.environment.gov.au/land/nrs/science/capad which is a
federal level database which collates a lot of the federal and state based
protected areas in Australia.

If the parcel is privately owned it'll usually be excluded from the
national park, eg
https://www.openstreetmap.org/#map=19/-33.79587/151.15666 where
you can see houses sandwiched between national park boundaries.

It even goes so far to exclude some road corridors which aren't legally
part of the national park, even though most people would consider
themselves to be in the national park when driving through. As can be seen
at https://www.openstreetmap.org/#map=17/-34.15149/151.03035 these road
corridors don't even align with where the actual road was built, but that
could be an error in the cadastre data, anyway this is all beside the point.

On Wed, 24 Jun 2020 at 01:20, Joseph Eisenberg <joseph.eisenb...@gmail.com>
wrote:

> On the Talk-US mailing list, other mappers from the USA have been
> discussing how National Forest boundaries should be mapped.
>
> There is now generally consensus that these should be tagged
> boundary=protected_area + protect_class=6 but there are 2 possible lines to
> follow:
>
> 1) The boundary declared by Congress (the legislature), which includes
> large areas of private land and whole towns in many cases
>
> 2) The actual land owned by the Federal Government of the United States
> within that declared boundary.
>
> The argument in favor of the second is that the privately-owned land
> within the boundary has no actual protection against development. For
> example, I lived in a village which was within the declared boundaries of
> the Klamath National Forest, but the development rules were determined by
> the County government and they were mostly the same as if we were not in
> the boundary (I think?)
>
> In other countries, how are National Park and other protected_area
> boundaries determined? If there are villages or towns within the boundary,
> are they actually protected? Are they excluded from the area?
>
> – Joseph Eisenberg
> _______________________________________________
> Tagging mailing list
> Tagging@openstreetmap.org
> https://lists.openstreetmap.org/listinfo/tagging
>
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