I have spent the last week researching all the uses of the srand(),
srandom(), and srand48() subsystems in the ports tree.

These three APIs are standardized into C89, POSIX, XPG42, etc.  Rather
unfortunate, since they suck, and their existance suckers developers
into doing the wrong thing.

The long standing problem is they have always contained a gigantic lie
in their names.  They are not random, not in any sense.  All three
subsystems produce deterministic results.  The reasons for this are
history not known to me, but it might even be linked to Dual_EC_DRBG.

A basic explanation of the APIs is needed.  All three work the same
way, just substitute rand/random/rand48 below:

        - A seed is provided by calling srand()
        - Subsequent calls to rand() will pull a value
          and rotate the "determinisic algorithm" forward

This API is used in two patterns:
        1. Under the assumption it provides good random numbers.
           This is the primary usage case by most developers.
           This is their expectation.
        2. A 'seed' can be re-provided at a later time, allowing
           replay of a previous "random sequence", oh wait, I mean
           a deterministic sequence...

The standards mandate both uses, and lull people into believing
that this is good practice.  Increasingly people have become aware that this
is bull, and then they invent their own which are just as bad.

I started my audit of the ports tree for rand() and random() use, as
indicated by the linker.  I found 1221 ports out of 8800 used them.

Differentiating pattern 1 from pattern 2 involved looking at the seed
being given to the subsystem.  If the software tried to supply a "good
seed", and had no framework for re-submitting a seed for reuse, then
it was clear it wanted good random numbers.  Those ports could be
eliminated from consideration, since they indicated they wanted good
random numbers.

This left only 41 ports for consideration.  Generally, these are doing
reseeding for reproduceable effects during benchmarking.  Further
analysis may show some of these ports do not need determinism, but if
there is any doubt they can be mindlessly modified as described below.

Late in the game, I started my audit for rand48.  That adds another 64
ports.  This is the newest in the family of APIs.  The same principle
follows.

I want to squeeze in a point about the software fetching random
numbers.  In general, the codeblocks where access to random numbers is
done lacks crafstmanship.  It is obvious that only a few pieces of
software in this set were written by people who understand the
consequences.  As an exercise, I did a grep for ports that use
arc4random().  Those automatically fell into a higher catagory of
quality.  A few even include their own versions.

The semantic change being done is to have these random subsystems
operate in strong random mode, unless a "srand_deterministic(seed)"
function is called to indicate preference for the unsafe mode.

Regarding impact of such changes.

First off, 96.5% of the ports using random are fixed in a trivial
fashion, because they suddenly get strong random.

Some of those 1285 ports are libraries, so I estimate around half of
the packages will be affected.  They will suddenly see strong
randomization where they did not before.  There may be a few broken
because the have a deeply hidden dependency on determinism.  Sorry,
but that is what it is going to take.


First here is one of the changed manual pages, then the diff after.

RAND(3)                    Library Functions Manual                    RAND(3)

NAME
     rand, rand_r, srand, srand_deterministic - bad pseudo-random number
     generator

SYNOPSIS
     #include <stdlib.h>

     void
     srand(unsigned int seed);

     void
     srand_deterministic(unsigned int seed);

     int
     rand(void);

     int
     rand_r(unsigned int *seed);

DESCRIPTION
     Standards insist that this interface return deterministic results.
     Unsafe usage is very common, so OpenBSD changed the subsystem to return
     non-deterministic results by default.

     To satisfy portable code, srand() may be called to initialize the
     subsystem.  In OpenBSD the seed variable is ignored, and strong random
     number results will be provided from arc4random(3.) In other systems, the
     seed variable primes a simplistic deterministic algorithm.

     If the standardized behavior is required srand_deterministic() can be
     substituted for srand(), then subsequent rand() calls will return results
     using the deterministic algorithm.

     The rand() function returns a result in the range of 0 to RAND_MAX.  By
     default, this result comes from arc4random(3).  If srand_deterministic()
     was called, the result will be computed using the deterministic
     algorithm.

     The rand_r() is a thread-safe version of rand().  Storage for the seed
     must be provided through the seed argument, and needs to have been
     initialized by the caller.  It always operates using the deterministic
     algorithm.

SEE ALSO
     arc4random(3), rand48(3), random(3)

STANDARDS
     The rand() function conforms to ANSI X3.159-1989 (``ANSI C89'').

     The rand_r() function conforms to IEEE Std 1003.1-2008 (``POSIX.1'').

     The srand() function does not conform to ANSI X3.159-1989 (``ANSI C89''),
     intentionally.

     The srand_deterministic() function is an OpenBSD extension.

HISTORY
     The functions rand() and srand() first appeared in Version 3 AT&T UNIX.

OpenBSD 5.6                    November 25, 2014                   OpenBSD 5.6




Index: include/stdlib.h
===================================================================
RCS file: /cvs/src/include/stdlib.h,v
retrieving revision 1.60
diff -u -p -u -r1.60 stdlib.h
--- include/stdlib.h    31 Aug 2014 02:21:18 -0000      1.60
+++ include/stdlib.h    8 Dec 2014 00:23:08 -0000
@@ -131,6 +131,7 @@ void         qsort(void *, size_t, size_t, int 
 int     rand(void);
 void   *realloc(void *, size_t);
 void    srand(unsigned);
+void    srand_deterministic(unsigned);
 double  strtod(const char *, char **);
 float   strtof(const char *, char **);
 long    strtol(const char *, char **, int);
@@ -163,7 +164,9 @@ long         lrand48(void);
 long    mrand48(void);
 long    nrand48(unsigned short[3]);
 unsigned short *seed48(unsigned short[3]);
+unsigned short *seed48_deterministic(unsigned short[3]);
 void    srand48(long);
+void    srand48_deterministic(long);
 
 int     putenv(char *);
 #endif
@@ -190,6 +193,7 @@ char        *initstate(unsigned int, char *, si
 long    random(void);
 char   *setstate(char *);
 void    srandom(unsigned int);
+void    srandom_deterministic(unsigned int);
 
 char   *realpath(const char *, char *)
                __attribute__((__bounded__ (__minbytes__,2,1024)));
Index: lib/libc/stdlib/Makefile.inc
===================================================================
RCS file: /cvs/src/lib/libc/stdlib/Makefile.inc,v
retrieving revision 1.55
diff -u -p -u -r1.55 Makefile.inc
--- lib/libc/stdlib/Makefile.inc        6 Dec 2014 18:54:55 -0000       1.55
+++ lib/libc/stdlib/Makefile.inc        8 Dec 2014 02:32:54 -0000
@@ -43,12 +43,14 @@ MLINKS+=malloc.3 free.3 malloc.3 realloc
 MLINKS+=malloc.3 reallocarray.3 malloc.3 cfree.3
 MLINKS+=qsort.3 heapsort.3 qsort.3 mergesort.3
 MLINKS+=radixsort.3 sradixsort.3
-MLINKS+=rand.3 srand.3 rand.3 rand_r.3
+MLINKS+=rand.3 srand.3 rand.3 rand_r.3 rand.3 srand_deterministic.3
 MLINKS+=random.3 initstate.3 random.3 setstate.3
-MLINKS+=random.3 srandom.3 random.3 srandomdev.3
+MLINKS+=random.3 srandom.3 random.3 srandomdev.3 random.3 
srandom_deterministic.3
 MLINKS+=rand48.3 drand48.3 rand48.3 erand48.3 rand48.3 lrand48.3
 MLINKS+=rand48.3 mrand48.3 rand48.3 nrand48.3 rand48.3 jrand48.3
-MLINKS+=rand48.3 srand48.3 rand48.3 seed48.3 rand48.3 lcong48.3
+MLINKS+=rand48.3 srand48.3 rand48.3 srand48_deterministic.3
+MLINKS+=rand48.3 seed48.3 rand48.3 seed48_deterministic.3
+MLINKS+=rand48.3 lcong48.3 rand48.3 lcong48_deterministic.3
 MLINKS+=ptsname.3 grantpt.3 ptsname.3 unlockpt.3
 MLINKS+=strtod.3 strtof.3 strtod.3 strtold.3
 MLINKS+=strtol.3 strtoll.3 strtol.3 strtoq.3 strtol.3 strtoimax.3
Index: lib/libc/stdlib/drand48.c
===================================================================
RCS file: /cvs/src/lib/libc/stdlib/drand48.c,v
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -p -u -r1.3 drand48.c
--- lib/libc/stdlib/drand48.c   8 Aug 2005 08:05:36 -0000       1.3
+++ lib/libc/stdlib/drand48.c   8 Dec 2014 17:49:34 -0000
@@ -19,5 +19,13 @@ extern unsigned short __rand48_seed[3];
 double
 drand48(void)
 {
+       if (__rand48_deterministic == 0) {
+               short rseed[3];
+
+               arc4random_buf(rseed, sizeof rseed);
+               return ldexp((double) rseed[0], -48) +
+                      ldexp((double) rseed[1], -32) +
+                      ldexp((double) rseed[2], -16);
+       }
        return erand48(__rand48_seed);
 }
Index: lib/libc/stdlib/lcong48.c
===================================================================
RCS file: /cvs/src/lib/libc/stdlib/lcong48.c,v
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -p -u -r1.3 lcong48.c
--- lib/libc/stdlib/lcong48.c   8 Aug 2005 08:05:36 -0000       1.3
+++ lib/libc/stdlib/lcong48.c   8 Dec 2014 00:22:17 -0000
@@ -21,6 +21,7 @@ extern unsigned short __rand48_add;
 void
 lcong48(unsigned short p[7])
 {
+       __rand48_deterministic = 1;
        __rand48_seed[0] = p[0];
        __rand48_seed[1] = p[1];
        __rand48_seed[2] = p[2];
Index: lib/libc/stdlib/lrand48.c
===================================================================
RCS file: /cvs/src/lib/libc/stdlib/lrand48.c,v
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -p -u -r1.3 lrand48.c
--- lib/libc/stdlib/lrand48.c   8 Aug 2005 08:05:36 -0000       1.3
+++ lib/libc/stdlib/lrand48.c   8 Dec 2014 17:53:37 -0000
@@ -19,6 +19,8 @@ extern unsigned short __rand48_seed[3];
 long
 lrand48(void)
 {
+       if (__rand48_deterministic == 0)
+               return arc4random() & 0x7fffffff;
        __dorand48(__rand48_seed);
        return ((long) __rand48_seed[2] << 15) + ((long) __rand48_seed[1] >> 1);
 }
Index: lib/libc/stdlib/mrand48.c
===================================================================
RCS file: /cvs/src/lib/libc/stdlib/mrand48.c,v
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -p -u -r1.3 mrand48.c
--- lib/libc/stdlib/mrand48.c   8 Aug 2005 08:05:37 -0000       1.3
+++ lib/libc/stdlib/mrand48.c   8 Dec 2014 03:13:07 -0000
@@ -19,6 +19,8 @@ extern unsigned short __rand48_seed[3];
 long
 mrand48(void)
 {
+       if (__rand48_deterministic == 0)
+               return arc4random();
        __dorand48(__rand48_seed);
        return ((long) __rand48_seed[2] << 16) + (long) __rand48_seed[1];
 }
Index: lib/libc/stdlib/rand.3
===================================================================
RCS file: /cvs/src/lib/libc/stdlib/rand.3,v
retrieving revision 1.17
diff -u -p -u -r1.17 rand.3
--- lib/libc/stdlib/rand.3      25 Nov 2014 17:41:12 -0000      1.17
+++ lib/libc/stdlib/rand.3      8 Dec 2014 04:00:48 -0000
@@ -37,44 +37,57 @@
 .Sh NAME
 .Nm rand ,
 .Nm rand_r ,
-.Nm srand
+.Nm srand ,
+.Nm srand_deterministic
 .Nd bad pseudo-random number generator
 .Sh SYNOPSIS
 .In stdlib.h
 .Ft void
 .Fn srand "unsigned int seed"
+.Ft void
+.Fn srand_deterministic "unsigned int seed"
 .Ft int
 .Fn rand void
 .Ft int
 .Fn rand_r "unsigned int *seed"
 .Sh DESCRIPTION
 .Bf -symbolic
-These interfaces are obsoleted by
-.Xr random 3 ,
-which is also unsafe.
-Consider using
-.Xr arc4random 3 .
+Standards insist that this interface return deterministic results.
+Unsafe usage is very common, so
+.Ox
+changed the subsystem to return non-deterministic results by default.
 .Ef
 .Pp
-The
+To satisfy portable code,
+.Fn srand
+may be called to initialize the subsystem.
+In
+.Ox
+the
+.Ar seed
+variable is ignored, and strong random number results will be provided from
+.Xr arc4random 3.
+In other systems, the
+.Ar seed
+variable primes a simplistic deterministic algorithm.
+.Pp
+If the standardized behavior is required
+.Fn srand_deterministic
+can be substituted for
+.Fn srand ,
+then subsequent
 .Fn rand
-function computes a sequence of pseudo-random integers in the range
-of 0 to
-.Dv RAND_MAX
-(as defined by the header file
-.In stdlib.h ) .
+calls will return results using the deterministic algorithm.
 .Pp
 The
-.Fn srand
-function sets its argument as the seed for a new sequence of
-pseudo-random numbers to be returned by
-.Fn rand .
-These sequences are repeatable by calling
-.Fn srand
-with the same seed value.
-.Pp
-If no seed value is provided, the functions are automatically
-seeded with a value of 1.
+.Fn rand
+function returns a result in the range of 0 to
+.Dv RAND_MAX .
+By default, this result comes from
+.Xr arc4random 3 .
+If
+.Fn srand_deterministic
+was called, the result will be computed using the deterministic algorithm.
 .Pp
 The
 .Fn rand_r
@@ -83,6 +96,7 @@ is a thread-safe version of
 Storage for the seed must be provided through the
 .Fa seed
 argument, and needs to have been initialized by the caller.
+It always operates using the deterministic algorithm.
 .Sh SEE ALSO
 .Xr arc4random 3 ,
 .Xr rand48 3 ,
@@ -90,15 +104,23 @@ argument, and needs to have been initial
 .Sh STANDARDS
 The
 .Fn rand
-and
-.Fn srand
-functions conform to
+function conforms to
 .St -ansiC .
 .Pp
 The
 .Fn rand_r
 function conforms to
 .St -p1003.1-2008 .
+.Pp
+The
+.Fn srand
+function does not conform to
+.St -ansiC ,
+intentionally.
+.Pp
+The
+.Fn srand_deterministic
+function is an OpenBSD extension.
 .Sh HISTORY
 The functions
 .Fn rand
Index: lib/libc/stdlib/rand.c
===================================================================
RCS file: /cvs/src/lib/libc/stdlib/rand.c,v
retrieving revision 1.10
diff -u -p -u -r1.10 rand.c
--- lib/libc/stdlib/rand.c      1 Aug 2013 19:42:08 -0000       1.10
+++ lib/libc/stdlib/rand.c      8 Dec 2014 03:50:34 -0000
@@ -30,6 +30,7 @@
 #include <sys/types.h>
 #include <stdlib.h>
 
+static int rand_deterministic;
 static u_int next = 1;
 
 int
@@ -47,6 +48,8 @@ __warn_references(rand_r,
 int
 rand(void)
 {
+       if (rand_deterministic)
+               return (arc4random() % ((u_int)RAND_MAX + 1));
        return (rand_r(&next));
 }
 
@@ -58,10 +61,12 @@ __warn_references(rand,
 void
 srand(u_int seed)
 {
-       next = seed;
+       rand_deterministic = 0;
 }
 
-#if defined(APIWARN)
-__warn_references(srand,
-    "warning: srand() seed choices are invariably poor");
-#endif
+void
+srand_deterministic(u_int seed)
+{
+       rand_deterministic = 1;
+       next = seed;
+}
Index: lib/libc/stdlib/rand48.3
===================================================================
RCS file: /cvs/src/lib/libc/stdlib/rand48.3,v
retrieving revision 1.16
diff -u -p -u -r1.16 rand48.3
--- lib/libc/stdlib/rand48.3    25 Nov 2014 17:26:34 -0000      1.16
+++ lib/libc/stdlib/rand48.3    8 Dec 2014 04:03:56 -0000
@@ -22,8 +22,11 @@
 .Nm mrand48 ,
 .Nm jrand48 ,
 .Nm srand48 ,
+.Nm srand48_deterministic ,
 .Nm seed48 ,
+.Nm seed48_deterministic ,
 .Nm lcong48
+.Nm lcong48_deterministic
 .Nd pseudo-random number generators and initialization routines
 .Sh SYNOPSIS
 .In stdlib.h
@@ -41,31 +44,56 @@
 .Fn jrand48 "unsigned short xseed[3]"
 .Ft void
 .Fn srand48 "long seed"
+.Ft void
+.Fn srand48_deterministic "long seed"
 .Ft "unsigned short *"
 .Fn seed48 "unsigned short xseed[3]"
+.Ft "unsigned short *"
+.Fn seed48_deterministic "unsigned short xseed[3]"
 .Ft void
 .Fn lcong48 "unsigned short p[7]"
+.Ft void
+.Fn lcong48_deterministic "unsigned short p[7]"
 .Sh DESCRIPTION
 .Bf -symbolic
-This interface is not cryptographically secure, so consider using
-.Xr arc4random 3
-instead.
+Standards insist that this interface return deterministic results.
+Unsafe usage is very common, so
+.Ox
+changed the subsystem to return non-deterministic results by default.
 .Ef
 .Pp
-The
-.Fn rand48
-family of functions generates pseudo-random numbers using a linear
-congruential algorithm working on integers 48 bits in size.
-The particular formula employed is
-r(n+1) = (a * r(n) + c) mod m
-where the default values are
-for the multiplicand a = 0xfdeece66d = 25214903917 and
-the addend c = 0xb = 11.
-The modulus is always fixed at m = 2 ** 48.
-r(n) is called the seed of the random number generator.
-.Pp
-For all the six generator routines described next, the first
-computational step is to perform a single iteration of the algorithm.
+To satisfy portable code,
+.Fn srand48 ,
+.Fn seed48 ,
+or
+.Fn lcong48
+should be called to initialize the subsystem.
+In
+.Ox
+the
+seeding parameters are ignored, and strong random number results will be
+provided from
+.Xr arc4random 3.
+In other systems, the
+parameters prime a simplistic deterministic algorithm.
+.Pp
+If the standardized behavior is required then
+.Fn srand48_deterministic ,
+.Fn seed48_deterministic ,
+and
+.Fn lcong48_deterministic
+can be substituted for
+.Fn srand48 ,
+.Fn seed48 ,
+and
+.Fn lcong48 .
+That will cause subsequent
+calls to
+.Fn drand48 ,
+.Fn lrand48 ,
+and
+.Fn jrand48
+to return results using the deterministic algorithm.
 .Pp
 .Fn drand48
 and
@@ -91,6 +119,21 @@ return values of type long in the range
 [-2**31, 2**31-1].
 The high-order (32) bits of r(n+1) are loaded into the returned value.
 .Pp
+In the deterministic mode, the
+.Fn rand48
+family of functions generates numbers using a linear congruential
+algorithm working on integers 48 bits in size.
+The particular formula employed is
+r(n+1) = (a * r(n) + c) mod m
+where the default values are
+for the multiplicand a = 0xfdeece66d = 25214903917 and
+the addend c = 0xb = 11.
+The modulus is always fixed at m = 2 ** 48.
+r(n) is called the seed of the random number generator.
+.Pp
+For all the six generator routines described next, the first
+computational step is to perform a single iteration of the algorithm.
+.Pp
 .Fn drand48 ,
 .Fn lrand48 ,
 and
@@ -110,7 +153,7 @@ holds the least significant bits.
 .Pp
 All functions share the same multiplicand and addend.
 .Pp
-.Fn srand48
+.Fn srand48_deterministic
 is used to initialize the internal buffer r(n) of
 .Fn drand48 ,
 .Fn lrand48 ,
@@ -121,7 +164,7 @@ of r(n), with the lower 16 bits of r(n) 
 Additionally, the constant multiplicand and addend of the algorithm are
 reset to the default values given above.
 .Pp
-.Fn seed48
+.Fn seed48_deterministic
 also initializes the internal buffer r(n) of
 .Fn drand48 ,
 .Fn lrand48 ,
@@ -131,14 +174,14 @@ but here all 48 bits of the seed can be 
 where the zeroth member specifies the lowest bits.
 Again, the constant multiplicand and addend of the algorithm are
 reset to the default values given above.
-.Fn seed48
+.Fn seed48_deterministic
 returns a pointer to an array of 3 shorts which contains the old seed.
 This array is statically allocated, so its contents are lost after
 each new call to
-.Fn seed48 .
+.Fn seed48_deterministic .
 .Pp
 Finally,
-.Fn lcong48
+.Fn lcong48_deterministic
 allows full control over the multiplicand and addend used in
 .Fn drand48 ,
 .Fn erand48 ,
@@ -169,14 +212,27 @@ The
 .Fn drand48 ,
 .Fn erand48 ,
 .Fn jrand48 ,
-.Fn lcong48 ,
 .Fn lrand48 ,
 .Fn mrand48 ,
-.Fn nrand48 ,
-.Fn seed48 ,
 and
-.Fn srand48
+.Fn nrand48 ,
 functions conform to
 .St -p1003.1-2008 .
+.Pp
+The
+.Fn seed48 ,
+.Fn srand48 ,
+and
+.Fn lcong48
+function do not conform to
+.St -ansiC ,
+intentionally.
+.Pp
+The
+.Fn seed48_deterministic ,
+.Fn srand48_deterministic ,
+and
+.Fn lcong48_deterministic
+functions are OpenBSD extensions.
 .Sh AUTHORS
 .An Martin Birgmeier
Index: lib/libc/stdlib/rand48.h
===================================================================
RCS file: /cvs/src/lib/libc/stdlib/rand48.h,v
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -p -u -r1.3 rand48.h
--- lib/libc/stdlib/rand48.h    16 Feb 2002 21:27:24 -0000      1.3
+++ lib/libc/stdlib/rand48.h    8 Dec 2014 00:22:17 -0000
@@ -20,6 +20,7 @@
 #include <stdlib.h>
 
 void           __dorand48(unsigned short[3]);
+extern int     __rand48_deterministic;
 
 #define        RAND48_SEED_0   (0x330e)
 #define        RAND48_SEED_1   (0xabcd)
Index: lib/libc/stdlib/random.3
===================================================================
RCS file: /cvs/src/lib/libc/stdlib/random.3,v
retrieving revision 1.26
diff -u -p -u -r1.26 random.3
--- lib/libc/stdlib/random.3    25 Nov 2014 17:40:38 -0000      1.26
+++ lib/libc/stdlib/random.3    8 Dec 2014 03:21:25 -0000
@@ -33,6 +33,7 @@
 .Sh NAME
 .Nm random ,
 .Nm srandom ,
+.Nm srandom_deterministic ,
 .Nm srandomdev ,
 .Nm initstate ,
 .Nm setstate
@@ -44,6 +45,8 @@
 .Ft void
 .Fn srandom "unsigned int seed"
 .Ft void
+.Fn srandom_deterministic "unsigned int seed"
+.Ft void
 .Fn srandomdev void
 .Ft char *
 .Fn initstate "unsigned int seed" "char *state" "size_t n"
@@ -51,58 +54,48 @@
 .Fn setstate "char *state"
 .Sh DESCRIPTION
 .Bf -symbolic
-This interface is not cryptographically secure, so consider using
-.Xr arc4random 3
-instead.
+Standards insist that this interface return deterministic results.
+Unsafe usage is very common, so
+.Ox
+changed the subsystem to return non-deterministic results by default.
 .Ef
 .Pp
-The
-.Fn random
-function uses a non-linear additive feedback random number generator employing
-a default table of size 31 long integers to return successive pseudo-random
-numbers in the range from 0 to (2**31)\-1.
-The period of this random number generator is very large, approximately
-16*((2**31)\-1).
-.Pp
-The
-.Fn random
-and
+To satisfy portable code,
 .Fn srandom
-functions have (almost) the same calling sequence and initialization
-properties as
-.Xr rand 3 Ns / Ns Xr srand 3 .
-The difference is that
-.Xr rand
-produces a much less random sequence \(em in fact, the low dozen bits
-generated by rand go through a cyclic pattern.
-All the bits generated by
+or
+.Fn srandomdev
+may be called to initialize the subsystem.
+In
+.Ox
+the
+.Ar seed
+variable is ignored, and strong random number results will be provided from
+.Xr arc4random 3.
+In other systems, the
+.Ar seed
+variable primes a simplistic deterministic algorithm.
+.Pp
+If the standardized behavior is required
+.Fn srandom_deterministic
+can be substituted for
+.Fn srandom ,
+then subsequent
 .Fn random
-are usable.
-For example,
-.Sq Li random()&01
-will produce a random binary
-value.
+calls will return results using the deterministic algorithm.
 .Pp
-Like
-.Xr rand 3 ,
+In non-deterministic (default) mode, the
 .Fn random
-will by default produce a sequence of numbers that can be duplicated
-by calling
-.Fn srandom
-with
-.Ql 1
-as the seed.
+function returns results from
+.Xr arc4random 3
+in the range from 0 to (2**31)\-1.
 .Pp
-The
-.Fn srandomdev
-routine switches to an algorithm using state derived from
-random numbers obtained from the kernel.
-Note that this particular seeding procedure can generate
-states which are impossible to reproduce by calling
-.Fn srandom
-with any value, since the succeeding terms in the
-state buffer are no longer derived from the LC algorithm applied to
-a fixed seed.
+In deterministic mode, the
+.Fn random
+function uses a non-linear additive feedback random number generator employing
+a default table of size 31 long integers to return successive pseudo-random
+numbers in the range from 0 to (2**31)\-1.
+The period of this random number generator is very large, approximately
+16*((2**31)\-1), but the results are a deterministic sequence from the seed.
 .Pp
 The
 .Fn initstate
@@ -151,9 +144,12 @@ and
 is that the size of the state array does not have to be remembered after
 it is initialized.
 .Pp
-With 256 bytes of state information, the period of the random number
-generator is greater than 2**69
-which should be sufficient for most purposes.
+Use of
+.Fn srandom_deterministic ,
+.Fn initstate ,
+or
+.Fn setstate
+forces the subsystem into deterministic mode.
 .Sh DIAGNOSTICS
 If
 .Fn initstate
@@ -169,7 +165,6 @@ messages are printed on the standard err
 .Sh STANDARDS
 The
 .Fn random ,
-.Fn srandom ,
 .Fn initstate ,
 and
 .Fn setstate
@@ -177,14 +172,21 @@ functions conform to
 .St -xpg4.2 .
 .Pp
 The
+.Fn srandom
+function does not conform to
+.St -xpg4.2 ,
+intentionally.
+.Pp
+The
 .Fn srandomdev
 function is an extension.
+.Pp
+The
+.Fn srandom_deterministic
+function is an OpenBSD extension.
 .Sh HISTORY
 These
 functions appeared in
 .Bx 4.2 .
 .Sh AUTHORS
 .An Earl T. Cohen
-.Sh BUGS
-The historical implementation used to have very weak seeding.
-As a result, the random sequence did not vary much with the seed.
Index: lib/libc/stdlib/random.c
===================================================================
RCS file: /cvs/src/lib/libc/stdlib/random.c,v
retrieving revision 1.24
diff -u -p -u -r1.24 random.c
--- lib/libc/stdlib/random.c    13 Oct 2014 20:54:13 -0000      1.24
+++ lib/libc/stdlib/random.c    8 Dec 2014 05:57:23 -0000
@@ -176,7 +176,7 @@ static int rand_type = TYPE_3;
 static int rand_deg = DEG_3;
 static int rand_sep = SEP_3;
 
-static int use_arc4random;
+static int random_deterministic;
 
 _THREAD_PRIVATE_MUTEX(random);
 static long random_l(void);
@@ -203,7 +203,7 @@ srandom_l(unsigned int x)
        int32_t test;
        div_t val;
 
-       use_arc4random = 0;
+       random_deterministic = 1;
        if (rand_type == TYPE_0)
                state[0] = x;
        else {
@@ -231,39 +231,23 @@ srandom_l(unsigned int x)
 void
 srandom(unsigned int x)
 {
-       LOCK();
-       srandom_l(x);
-       UNLOCK();
+       random_deterministic = 0;
 }
 
-#if defined(APIWARN)
-__warn_references(srandom,
-    "warning: srandom() seed choices are invariably poor");
-#endif
-
-/*
- * srandomdev:
- *
- * Many programs choose the seed value in a totally predictable manner.
- * This often causes problems.  We seed the generator using random data.
- * Note that this particular seeding procedure can generate states
- * which are impossible to reproduce by calling srandom() with any
- * value, since the succeeding terms in the state buffer are no longer
- * derived from the LC algorithm applied to a fixed seed.
- */
 void
 srandomdev(void)
 {
+       random_deterministic = 0;       /* back to the default */
+}
+
+void
+srandom_deterministic(unsigned int x)
+{
        LOCK();
-       use_arc4random = 1;
+       srandom_l(x);
        UNLOCK();
 }
 
-#if defined(APIWARN)
-__warn_references(srandomdev,
-    "warning: srandomdev() usage; consider switching to arc4random()");
-#endif
-
 /*
  * initstate:
  *
@@ -289,7 +273,7 @@ initstate(u_int seed, char *arg_state, s
        char *ostate = (char *)(&state[-1]);
 
        LOCK();
-       use_arc4random = 0;
+       random_deterministic = 1;
        if (rand_type == TYPE_0)
                state[-1] = rand_type;
        else
@@ -354,7 +338,7 @@ setstate(char *arg_state)
        char *ostate = (char *)(&state[-1]);
 
        LOCK();
-       use_arc4random = 0;
+       random_deterministic = 1;
        if (rand_type == TYPE_0)
                state[-1] = rand_type;
        else
@@ -405,7 +389,7 @@ random_l(void)
 {
        int32_t i;
 
-       if (use_arc4random)
+       if (random_deterministic == 0)
                return arc4random() & 0x7fffffff;
 
        if (rand_type == TYPE_0)
@@ -431,8 +415,3 @@ random(void)
        UNLOCK();
        return r;
 }
-
-#if defined(APIWARN)
-__warn_references(random,
-    "warning: random() isn't random; consider using arc4random()");
-#endif
Index: lib/libc/stdlib/seed48.c
===================================================================
RCS file: /cvs/src/lib/libc/stdlib/seed48.c,v
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -p -u -r1.3 seed48.c
--- lib/libc/stdlib/seed48.c    8 Aug 2005 08:05:37 -0000       1.3
+++ lib/libc/stdlib/seed48.c    8 Dec 2014 00:22:17 -0000
@@ -21,8 +21,19 @@ extern unsigned short __rand48_add;
 unsigned short *
 seed48(unsigned short xseed[3])
 {
+       unsigned short *res;
+
+       res = seed48_deterministic(xseed);
+       __rand48_deterministic = 0;
+       return res;
+}
+
+unsigned short *
+seed48_deterministic(unsigned short xseed[3])
+{
        static unsigned short sseed[3];
 
+       __rand48_deterministic = 1;
        sseed[0] = __rand48_seed[0];
        sseed[1] = __rand48_seed[1];
        sseed[2] = __rand48_seed[2];
Index: lib/libc/stdlib/srand48.c
===================================================================
RCS file: /cvs/src/lib/libc/stdlib/srand48.c,v
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -p -u -r1.3 srand48.c
--- lib/libc/stdlib/srand48.c   8 Aug 2005 08:05:37 -0000       1.3
+++ lib/libc/stdlib/srand48.c   8 Dec 2014 00:22:17 -0000
@@ -18,9 +18,19 @@ extern unsigned short __rand48_seed[3];
 extern unsigned short __rand48_mult[3];
 extern unsigned short __rand48_add;
 
+int     __rand48_deterministic;
+
 void
 srand48(long seed)
 {
+       srand48_deterministic(seed);
+       __rand48_deterministic = 0;
+}
+
+void
+srand48_deterministic(long seed)
+{
+       __rand48_deterministic = 1;
        __rand48_seed[0] = RAND48_SEED_0;
        __rand48_seed[1] = (unsigned short) seed;
        __rand48_seed[2] = (unsigned short) (seed >> 16);

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