That isn't directly the fault of apt-key. It uses gpg which in its >=
2.0 versions has split its operations into a multitude of daemons for
security reasons. The daemons should be terminating themselves a few
seconds after the directory they operate in disappears. That is at least
the case for gpg-agent, but "a few seconds" is obviously too slow if you
are in a hurry, so apt-key tries to kill it via gpgconf --kill gpg-agent
(which isn't supported in all gpg version, but at least in the one in
ubuntu I hope). The manpage tells me that this isn't supported for
dirmngr through, which is the daemon left in your case, so solving that
from the apt-key side isn't exactly easy (short of implementing a sub-
subprocess supervisor in shell script…) so I would feel tempted to
declare that the problem of gpg and invalid for apt-key.

That said, your apt-key command is bad and should be replaced. Getting
keys from a keyserver is hopelessly insecure (it is better with recent
gpg versions) but still: Your use of a short-keyid screams security
problem due to easy collisions and hkp is a cleartext protocol so just
asking for MITM (and at least older gpg versions do no checks at all on
the received key(s)).

I guess the simplest & best solution is to ship the key in your preseed
script and drop it with an appropriate name (ending in .gpg) in
/etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/  – as a bonus, your system will not need gnupg
installed (at least in terms of apt), gpgv will be enough.

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  apt-key leaves files in /dev open after exit

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