Hi,
thank you for your bug report and your help to make Ubuntu better.
In the Log I have found:
2017-03-17T18:47:56.048534Z 0 [Note] InnoDB: Initializing buffer pool, total 
size = 128M, instances = 1, chunk size = 128M
2017-03-17T18:47:56.049259Z 0 [ERROR] InnoDB: mmap(136151040 bytes) failed; 
errno 12
2017-03-17T18:47:56.049290Z 0 [ERROR] InnoDB: Cannot allocate memory for the 
buffer pool
2017-03-17T18:47:56.049317Z 0 [ERROR] InnoDB: Plugin initialization aborted 
with error Generic error
2017-03-17T18:47:56.049343Z 0 [ERROR] Plugin 'InnoDB' init function returned 
error.
2017-03-17T18:47:56.049358Z 0 [ERROR] Plugin 'InnoDB' registration as a STORAGE 
ENGINE failed.
2017-03-17T18:47:56.049370Z 0 [ERROR] Failed to initialize plugins.
2017-03-17T18:47:56.049379Z 0 [ERROR] Aborting

>From this time on there are a few more like these, but the repedition
might just be due to you retrying to upgrade the mysql package.

The MYSQL-Server is restarted on upgrade and the log indicates that this 
restart seems to fail.
The last good startup was at "170317 14:32:20 [Note] /usr/sbin/mysqld: ready 
for connections." with the old version "5.5.54".

Now 128 MB does not seem too much, yet I wanted to ask to be sure if this 
system is very small or in general memory constrained?
I see int the dmesg that it is a 256MB System, maybe it is just too low of a 
limit to run the newer mysql server with your configuration?

We usually try to work through an installation with 256MB, but I'm not
so sure if that is true with "bigger" extra software like mysql. In your
case it seems to want 50% of your memory, with the kernel having another
~15%.

Maybe you could either give the system more memory or consider shrinking the 
buffer pool size, be aware that this gets you lower than the buffer pool chunk, 
so you need to adapt that as well.
https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/innodb-buffer-pool-resize.html
There are certain other tweaks that can be tried to shrink the needs, like [1].

Common options also often include adding swap [2], decrease the need of
mysql via more in [2] or in [3]. The same is in [4], I think you totally
see where this is going.

[1]: 
http://serverfault.com/questions/789244/innodb-not-really-out-of-memory/790301#790301
[2]: 
https://www.digitalocean.com/community/questions/mysql-server-keeps-stopping-unexpectedly
[3]: 
http://askubuntu.com/questions/457923/why-did-installation-of-mysql-5-6-on-ubuntu-14-04-fail/457932#457932
[4]: 
http://www.webtrafficexchange.com/solved-mysql-crash-fatal-error-cannot-allocate-memory-buffer-pool

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https://bugs.launchpad.net/bugs/1673861

Title:
  package mysql-server-5.7 5.7.17-0ubuntu0.16.04.1 failed to
  install/upgrade: subprocess installed post-installation script
  returned error exit status 1

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