our top contributor from a data volume perspective is time series data. We are
running with STCS since our initial production deployment in 2014 with several
clusters with a varying number of nodes, but currently with max. 9 nodes per
single cluster per different region in AWS with m4.xlarge / EBS gp2 storage. We
have a road of Cassandra versions starting with 1.2 to actually using DSC
2.1.15 soon to be replaced by Apache Cassandra 2.1.18 across all deployments.
Lately we switched from Thrift (Astyanax) to Native/CQL (DataStax driver).
Overall we are pretty happy with stability and the scale out offering.
We store time series data in different resolutions, from 1min up to 1day
aggregates per "time slot". Each resolution has its own column family / table
and a periodic worker is executing our business logic regarding time series
aging from e.g. 1min => 5min => ... resolution + deletion in source resolutions
according to our retention per resolution policy. So deletions will happen way
later (e.g. at least > 14d). We don't use TTLs on written time series data (in
production, see TWCS testing below), so purging is exclusively handled by
explicit DELETEs in our aging business logic creating tombstones.
Naturally with STCS and late explicit deletions / tombstones, it will take a
lot of time to finally reclaim disk space, even worse, we are now running a
major compaction every X weeks. We currently are also testing with STCS
min_threshold = 2 etc., but all in all, this all feels not being a long-term
solution. I guess there is nothing else we are missing from a
configuration/setting side with STCS? Single SSTable compaction might not kick
in as well, cause checking with sstablemeta, estimated droppable tombstones for
our time series based SSTables is pretty much 0.0 all the time. I guess as we
don't write with TTL?
TWCS caught my eyes in 2015 I think, and even more at the Cassandra Summit 2016
+ other Tombstone related talks. Cassandra 3.0 is around 6 months ahead for us,
thus initial testing was with 2.1.18 patched with TWCS from GitHub.
Looks like TWCS is exactly what we need, thus test-wise, once we start writing
with TTL we end up with a single SSTable per passed window size and data
(SSTables) older than TTL + grace get automatically removed from disk. Even
with enabled out-of-orders DELETEs from our business logic, purging SSTables
seems not be stucked. Not sure if this is expected. Writing with TTL is also a
bit problematic, in case our retention policy changes in general or for
A few questions, as we need some short-term (with C* 2.1) and long-term (with
C* 3.0) mitigation:
* With STCS, estimated droppable tombstones being always 0.0 (thus also
no automatic single SSTable compaction may happen): Is this a matter of not
writing with TTL? If yes, would enabling TTL with STCS improve the disk reclaim
situation, cause then single SSTAble compactions will kick in?
* What is the semantic of "default_time_to_live" at table level? From:
http://docs.datastax.com/en/cql/3.1/cql/cql_using/use_expire_c.html : "After
the default_time_to_live TTL value has been exceed, Cassandra tombstones the
entire table". What does "entire table" mean? Hopefully / I guess I don't end
up with an empty table every X past TTLs?
* Anything else I'm missing regarding STCS and reclaiming disk space
earlier in our TS use case?
* I know, changing compaction is a matter of executing ALTER TABLE (or
temporary via JMX for a single node), but as we have legacy data being written
without TTL, I wonder if we may end up in stuck SSTable again
* In case of stuck SSTables with any compaction strategy, what is the
best way to debug/analyze why it got stuck (overlapping etc.)?
Thanks a lot and sorry for the lengthy email.
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