Thanks a lot Todd for your help, this really clarified the encoding part
which I was thinking to implement.

on slowness in read, I will share more details soon.

Thank you,

On Tue, Oct 11, 2016 at 7:28 AM, Todd Lipcon <> wrote:

> Hey Amit,
> Some responses below:
> On Mon, Oct 10, 2016 at 5:27 AM, Amit Adhau <>
> wrote:
>> Hi Kudu Team,
>> I was doing a testing for the Dictionary & Prefix Encoding in Kudu table.
>> To do so, I have created two tables with same structure and same data.
>> Inserted 1 billion records into both the tables, having on an average close
>> to 1kb record size.
>> I have observed below;
>> On disk storage level - I have found substantial difference between the
>> encoded column table and non-encoded column table size, as encoded column
>> table took very less space as compare to non-encoded column table.
> Yes, that's expected -- one of the most important purposes of encodings is
> to reduce data size on disk.
>> On validating scan performance - I have found that running queries
>> against a table with encoded column took less time[always],  as compare to
>> running queries on non-encoded column table.
>> Can you please help me on below queries;
>> 1. Scan on encoded columns takes less time, is this expected behavior?
> It's often the case, especially if the data is large enough that it isn't
> fitting in cache. There are some cases where it's not faster, though. For
> example, if you use bitshuffle encodings on integers, and the size of the
> column was small enough that it was fully cached, it would be faster to
> scan unencoded integers compared to encoded ones. That balance changes,
> though, if the data no longer fits in RAM, since the reduced IO cost (due
> to the encoding) offsets the increased CPU cost (due to having to decode in
> order to service the query).
> With dictionary compression of strings, however, it should basically
> always be the case that it's beneficial. This is especially true if you
> have predicates on the encoded columns ('WHERE' clauses in SQL
> terminology), and especially after v1.0 in which there were some
> optimizations in this area.
>> 2. Just to confirm, In case of, composite primary key, as per
>> understanding it can be helpful to have prefix encoding implemented on
>> first column or first few columns where the values could be same Or may be
>> a column like webpage url in clickstream logs can have Prefix encoding
>> implemented.
> For the case of string columns at the beginning of a composite key, you're
> right that prefix encoding is often a good choice. Note that internally
> Kudu synthesizes a "composite key" column (not exposed to the user) which
> concatenates your PK columns, and that _always_ uses PREFIX encoding,
> regardless of what you've selected for the columns themselves.
>> 3. As per the release note for Dictionary encoding;
>> "If the column values of a given row set are unable to be compressed
>> because the number of unique values is too high, Kudu will transparently
>> fall back to plain encoding for that row set"
>> Is there any method to find out the probable upper number for unique
>> values, that the dictionary encoding can handle and in such case, as stated
>> it will back to plain encoding, So will it be applicable to the records
>> inserted after the upper limit exceeds i.e. only they will be in plain
>> encoding or kudu will convert all the values[including existing] for
>> dictionary encoded column into plain encoding automatically? will there be
>> any impact at functional level?
> This is all fully automatic, and the choice of encoding happens at a small
> block level, not at the entire table level. So even if you have a very
> large number of unique values globally across the table, if "nearby" rows
> (ie within a few MB of each other) have low number of distinct elements,
> you will benefit from dictionary.
> Dictionary compression is so often the correct choice for strings that
> I've been thinking we should probably make it the default :)
>> 4. Since gflags like --cfile_do_on_finish=flush and --flush_threshold_mb
>> are defaults in latest versions. Are there any other tunning flags or
>> configs that can be helpful to improve the performance at insert level.
>> Also, at the scan level, we are using the ScanToken API & hash
>> partitions, but still the scan performance seems to be slow, can you please
>> suggest if anything else can be done at the configuration level or
>> implementation level to improve the scan performance.
> For inserts, there aren't any flags I can recommend that wouldn't have
> negative consequences. However, it's worth noting that the upcoming 1.1
> release will have a few optimizations on the write side that might increase
> your throughput substantially, especially if you're using Impala to drive
> the inserts.
> On the read path, the most important thing is to make sure you have enough
> partitions per node to get proper parallelism on the reads. But, there are
> a lot of factors. Can you quantify what you mean by "slow", and
> particularly what your point of reference is? Maybe share some sample
> queries and dataset characteristics?
> -Todd
> --
> Todd Lipcon
> Software Engineer, Cloudera

Thanks & Regards,

*Amit Adhau* | Data Architect

*GLOBANT* | IND:+91 9821518132

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