On 03/13/2018 02:21 PM, Stephen Morris wrote: > On 13/3/18 8:46 pm, Patrick O'Callaghan wrote: >> On Mon, 2018-03-12 at 18:25 -0700, Rick Stevens wrote: >>> On 03/12/2018 03:37 PM, Patrick O'Callaghan wrote: >>>> On Tue, 2018-03-13 at 07:26 +1100, Stephen Morris wrote: >>>>>> 'du' with no parameters recursively lists all the subdirectories and >>>>>> their sizes, along with the grand total. When applied to my home >>>>>> directory, I get over 30,000 lines of output. That's almost never >>>>>> what >>>>>> I want. My usual call is 'du -hs'. >>>>>> >>>>>> poc >>>>> Thanks Patrick, taking this a step further, it seems to me that the >>>>> only >>>>> parameter for du that, to me, provides the correct file size is -b as >>>>> shown below. >>>> I think you have a misconception here. 'du' does not give file sizes, >>>> it gives disk usage. A 1-byte file takes up at least 1 disk block, so >>>> that's the size 'du' will give. I seem to remember that it also counts >>>> indirect blocks and other housekeeping that corresponds to the file >>>> without being included in the file's content, but I could be mistaken >>>> (though I'm fairly sure early versions did do that). >>> du (with no flags) gives disk usage. As Patrick says, a 1-byte file >>> uses one disk block (which is generally 4KiB) and that's what du is >>> reporting (after all, "du" means "disk usage"). The "-b" flag means >>> "set the block size to 1 byte and show the apparent size", which is what >>> "ls -l" would report (there may be differences between du and ls if >>> sparse files are involved). >> Good point about sparse files, which I'd forgotten in this context. A >> sparse file can be 10TB in size yet occupy only 1 disk block. 'du' will >> give the usage as 1 block and 'ls' will say it's 10TB. >> >>> Also, du walks down the entire current directory unless you give it >>> arguments to tell it what to look at. Note that the arguments you pass >>> it are interpreted by the _shell_, not "du" (even the man page says >>> "PATTERN is a shell pattern (not a regular expression)"). >>> >>> This is a common confusion point with many people. Unless you enclose >>> shell metacharacters in quotes (and dots and splats are metacharacters), >>> the shell WILL interpret them--sometimes in ways you aren't expecting! >>> By default, shell globbing does NOT expand filenames that start with a >>> dot (to the shell, a dot means "current directory"). >> Slight nit: '.' (on its own) means 'current directory' to the kernel, >> not to the Shell, i.e. it's wired into the system and doesn't depend on >> the command interpreter (in the same way that '/' is the path separator >> and cannot be changed). The use of dot-files as a way of hiding certain >> names is IIRC originally just a convention of 'ls' which the Shell >> adopted for consistency. >> >> poc > > Thanks guys, I fully understood the -b parameter was giving an apparent > size of the file (which approximately matches what ls -l provides), that > sparse files can impact the apparent size, and that the physical size of > a file is governed by the sector size, but my usage of du, especially > with the -s parameter, is the amount of "apparent" space occupied by > files and directories (where possible I usually use a sector size of > 512) to identify space hogs. I'm also fully aware of the sector size > trade off between efficient space utilization and efficient I/O and the > apparent space used by files. > > What I hadn't realized until Patrick mentioned it, was the significance > of the * in the path specification. I hadn't realized that with using > the * not only did it cause files prefixed with a '.' to be ignored but > it also causes directories prefixed with a '.' to be ignored also.
No. What you have to get straight is that when you use "*", you're asking the shell to create a list of files and return it, and by default the shell doesn't list files starting with a dot. To clarify, assume you have a directory containing the files "file1", "file2", "file3" and ".dotfile". If you "cd" to it and do an "ls *" (asking the shell to expand the glob), you'll get a list of "file1", "file2" and "file3". The same is true if the command was "du" and not "ls". So the command: du -a * is exactly equivalent to: du -a file1 file2 file3 If you simply do: du -a then du will walk down the _directory_ you're in and display all of the files, including ".dotfile", since du does not ignore files starting with a dot. ---------------------------------------------------------------------- - Rick Stevens, Systems Engineer, AllDigital ri...@alldigital.com - - AIM/Skype: therps2 ICQ: 22643734 Yahoo: origrps2 - - - - Admitting you have a problem is the first step toward getting - - medicated for it. -- Jim Evarts (http://www.TopFive.com) - ---------------------------------------------------------------------- _______________________________________________ users mailing list -- email@example.com To unsubscribe send an email to users-le...@lists.fedoraproject.org