from my book


THE FINE STRUCTURE CONSTANT
 
Coulomb’s equations (1&2) describe theelectromagnetic force.  The factors, 
ofthese equations, were used by Maxwell and the speed of light c was produced.  
This speed is that of a freely propagatingelectromagnetic wave. 


                              
Znidarsic’s equations (3&4) also describe theelectromagnetic force.  The 
factors, ofthese equations, produced the nuclear speed Sn.  The domain,of this 
speed, was extended to non-baryonic systems in (30).  Energy moves between the 
harmonics, of a boundmatter wave, at Sn.  The speed of the ground state 
electron in thehydrogen atom is 2Sn.  The factor of two appeared as the 
nuclearspeed coupled with the atomic orbits.  Theratio the speed 2Sn tothat of 
light c was expressedbelow.  




alpha = 2Sn/c


 
The origin and meaning of the fine structureconstant has been a long standing 
mystery. Richard Feynman stated, “Physicistsput this number up on their wall 
and worry about it.”  The fine structure constant a emerged as the ratio was 
reduced.   The fine structure constant emerged, fromspeed, within a framework 
of Newtonian mechanics.  







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