Barium Ferrite is wonderful stuff. First, it is both a topological insulator, and an electrical insulator which tightly locks in the atomic magnetic dipole induced magnetic domain where electron flow is non existent and does not weaken the magnetic domain through electron band filling.
The key to all this is unpaired electrons. A quantum mechanical property called spin gives every electron a magnetic field. Electrons like to pair up is a way that negates their spin. You can think of each one as a tiny bar magnet with the usual north and south poles. Generally, electrons come in pairs. And when you pair up two electrons, their magnetic fields (sort of ) cancel each other out. The orbital containing the pair becomes magnetically the same from all directions. Electron pairing is not good for us. But in some systems, electrons must go unpaired, leading to interesting magnetic properties. When you put an magnetocaloric (MC) material into an external magnetic field, the dipoles associated with the unpaired electrons tend to align with the field and - importantly - the temperature of the material increases. Why does the temperature increase? The magnetic field forces the spins into a thermodynamically lower energy state, and the result of this is that thermal energy - heat - is expelled. When you take the material out of the field it cools down. Thermal energy is absorbed by the system to return the dipoles to a more disordered state. A good example of an MC material is gadolinium, which has seven unpaired electrons in its 4f orbitals, giving it an enormous magnetic moment. Scientists have known about the effect for decades. It was first described in 1881 by German physicist Emil Warburg, who noted that the temperature of a sample of iron increased when he put it into a magnetic field. And it wasn’t long before engineers were thinking about how it might be harnessed to create a heat pump, a device that shifts heat from one place to another against the gradient. Barium Ferrite does not allow electron flow to degrade these unpaired electron orbitals. Strontium ferrite is not a topological insulator but it is still as good an electrical insulator as barium ferrite. Strontium ferrite allows a limited number of electrons to flow which weakens the MC effect and the generation of magnon coherence. Strontium ferrite will do the job but not a good a job as Barium Ferrite, the job being "producing magnon coherence". Both types of these ferrets can be made magnetically anisotropic. Anisotropic magnetism is a requirement for magnetic triode success. Ferrite magnets may be isotropic or anisotropic. In anisotropic qualities, during the pressing process, a magnetic field is applied. This process lines up the particles in one direction, obtaining better magnetic features. Through sintering, (thermal processing at high temperatures), pieces in their definite shape and solidity are obtained, Barium ferrite does not conduct electricity. It also has a characteristic known as perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). This situation originates from the inherent magneto-crystalline anisotropy of the insulator and not the interfacial anisotropy in other situations. As a Mott insulator, it possesses strong spin orbit coupling. This characteristic produces a log jam of electrons that stops current from flowing. We don't want any electrons to move. A wet pressed process where magnetic particles can move when placed in a magnetic field makes for the strongest magnets before sintering with high heat can make that magnetic ordering permanent. On Sun, Feb 26, 2017 at 10:12 AM, Bob Higgins <rj.bob.higg...@gmail.com> wrote: > Note that these ferrites have substantially different properties in the > small signal than they do for large scale magnetic excursions. An RF > engineer would shoot you for bringing a magnet near his ferrites because > the high magnetic field can bias the material away from the desirable high > permeability small signal linear operating point in the B-H curve of the > material. When you begin putting really large signals into a ferrite the > material behaviors become complicated because, not only is the B-H curve > nonlinear, but it also has hysteresis. There is plenty of room for odd > behavior in such a complicated material. Sometimes when I look at the B-H > curves for large signal excitation of a ferrite it reminds me of the > temperature-entropy diagram. > > Regarding the magnetocaloric effect (MCE)... the field has centered around > magnetic refrigeration and the materials that dominate the field are those > exhibiting the "giant magnetocaloric effect" which include primarily > materials made with gadolinium. So, ferrite materials may exhibit some > MCE, but are not optimized for it. This suggests that MCE may be just a > side effect in the ferrite during the Manelas device operation, rather than > a primary component of the effect. Otherwise, why wouldn't you use a > material with the giant MCE? > > > On Sun, Feb 26, 2017 at 7:47 AM, <bobcook39...@gmail.com> wrote: > >> Axil— >> >> >> >> IMHO you have finally got the picture!!!! at least with respect to LENR. >> >> >> >> Bob Cook >> >> >> >> *From: *Axil Axil <janap...@gmail.com> >> *Sent: *Friday, February 24, 2017 3:47 PM >> *To: *vortex-l <firstname.lastname@example.org> >> *Subject: *Re: [Vo]:DESCRIBING THE MANELAS Phenomenon >> >> >> >> Whenever we can get the spin of an atom to move: whenever we can get a >> spin to lose OR gain energy, that energy can be transferred to an electron >> with high efficiency. There are a number of ways that atomic spin can be >> excited: *magnetocaloric *where heat energy is transferred to the spin >> of an atom embedded in a lattice through metal lattice phonons of that >> lattice or quantum mechanical vibrations that are inherent in the >> heisenberg uncertainty principle. The key is to amplify this naturally >> occurring spin movements enough to move electrons strong enough to generate >> usable voltages and currents. That amplification mechanism might be done by >> setting up a coherence boundary condition that involves a change of state >> between coherence and incoherence where a slight external magnetic >> perturbation triggers this change of state. >> >> >> >> Barium ferrite might be a magnetic current superconductor where magnetic >> currents flow inside its lattice. >> >> >> >> An example of this magnetic current superconductor might be a magnet >> that allows magnetic flux lines to pass through it or not based on an >> external parameter: may be temperature or an external magnetic >> perturbation as an example. >> >> >> >> See (Barium ferrite is a magnetic insulator) >> >> >> >> http://www.nature.com/nmat/journal/v16/n3/full/nmat4812.html >> >> >> Current-induced switching in a magnetic insulator >> >> >> >> The spin Hall effect in heavy metals converts charge current into pure >> spin current, which can be injected into an adjacent ferromagnet to exert a >> torque. This spin–orbit torque (SOT) has been widely used to manipulate the >> magnetization in metallic ferromagnets. In the case of magnetic insulators >> (MIs), although charge currents cannot flow, spin currents can propagate, >> but current-induced control of the magnetization in a MI has so far >> remained elusive. Here we demonstrate spin-current-induced switching of a >> perpendicularly magnetized thulium iron garnet film driven by charge >> current in a Pt overlayer. We estimate a relatively large spin-mixing >> conductance and damping-like SOT through spin Hall magnetoresistance and >> harmonic Hall measurements, respectively, indicating considerable spin >> transparency at the Pt/MI interface. We show that spin currents injected >> across this interface lead to deterministic magnetization reversal at low >> current densities, paving the road towards ultralow-dissipation >> spintronic devices based on MIs. >> >> >> >> On Fri, Feb 24, 2017 at 5:29 PM, Jones Beene <jone...@pacbell.net> wrote: >> >> Whenever purported "free energy" phenomena turn up with no apparent >> source of excess energy, there are a limited number of candidates which >> seem to rear their ugly heads. >> >> This only applies to LENR in the absence of real nuclear energy, but the >> nucleus can be part of a combined MO. In rough order of scientific validity >> and usefulness, these candidates for the source of gain are: >> >> 1) ZPE (aether, raumenergie, dynamical Casimir effect, space energy, >> vacuum energy, quantum energy, Hotson epo field, quantum foam, etc) >> 2) CMB cosmic microwave background (3K-CMB) >> 2) neutrinos >> 4) Schumann resonance >> 5) Fair weather field >> 6) Magnetic field of earth >> 7) Ambient heat (plus deep heat sink) >> 8) Below absolute zero (deeper heat sink) >> 9) Anti-gravity effect >> >> There are more but they tend to be different wording or combinations of >> the above ... and even more incredulous. Many combinations are possible. >> >> The main reason for bringing this up is that recently CMB has been >> estimated to be slightly more robust than once thought and with new ways to >> couple to it. The CMB is probably a subset of ZPE but the energy density of >> space in terms of the microwave-only spectrum is the equivalent of 0.261 eV >> per cubic cm, though the actual temperature of 2.7 K is much less than that >> would indicate - and the peak of the spectrum is at a frequency of 160.4 >> GHz. ZPE as a whole may be more robust, but CMB is adequate for many uses. >> >> The peak intensity of the background is about... ta ad.. a whopping 385 >> MJy/Sr (that's MegaJanskys per Steradian (I kid you not) which is a >> candidate for the oddest metric in all of free energy, maybe all of physics >> ... along with furlongs per fortnight). >> >> At any rate, if one could invent the way to couple to CMB easily, it >> would be possible to see an effective temperature equivalent in an >> excellent range for thermionics, for instance. The ~2 mm wavelength is >> interesting too. There have been fringe reports of anomalies with 13 gauge >> wire but anything with the number 13 is going to bring out the worst ... >> >> >> >> >> > >