Proton-proton fusion is of such low probability that it is almost a waste of 
time to think that it has relevance in the real world, despite the mainstream 
view. We see gamma radiation in stars with or without fusion (even Jupiter and 
the gas giants have lots of gamma emission) but this usually derives from 
positron/electron events, not fusion. A related phenomenon used to be called 
Wheeler’s “quantum foam” but the term has gone out of favor. (Wiki has an 
entry). A real proton/proton fusion event would be akin to winning every prize 
in the lottery on every draw for a year in a row… and has no applicability to 
LENR because of rarity. 

There has to be a better crossover explanation - but proton fusion in so 
engrained that it will be difficult to weed out. Even Ed Storms has fallen for 
it.

As an alternative to proton-proton fusion, there is a fully reversible diproton 
reaction with asymmetry. The diproton reaction is the most common reaction in 
the universe but it always reverses quickly. It is assumed to be net neutral in 
energy, mainly because of the assumption that proton mass is quantized - but 
that assumption is probably wrong - and each reaction event could have small 
gain contributory to stellar CNO fusion which is real: 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CNO_cycle

Bottom line, if the proton has variable mass, then the reversible diproton 
reaction alone can power a star or it can be contributory . A population of 
protons which is not quantized can capture and convert mass to energy in 
several ways including the complete annihilation event of Holmlid. This has 
relevance to LENR and at one time here, I was promoting an alternative 
hypothesis for Ni-H gain called RPF – or Reversible Proton Fusion... but, alas 
- there is nothing new under the sun, as they say and someone had already 
thought of it.

In the “small world” category, or maybe it is in the meme category – a theorist 
who lives not far away, came up with the same suggestion earlier. “Variable 
mass theories in relativistic quantum mechanics as an explanation for anomalous 
low energy nuclear phenomena” by Mark Davidson. Worth a read.

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/615/1/012016/pdf
 


From: Nigel Dyer

In the text of the wikipedia page about proton proton fusion

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proton%E2%80%93proton_chain_reaction

It says that in the first stage, when two protons fuse, a gamma ray 
proton is produced.  However this is not shown in the diagram, or in 
anyone elses diagram, or in anyone else's text.   Is the wikipedia page 
incorrect.   If no gamma ray photon is produced then where does the 
excess energy (0.42MeV) from this first stage go?

Nigel




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