In his latest article, Holmlid rejects fusion as too weak to power the
energy output that he is seeing in his experiments.
"The origin of the particle signals observed here is clearly laser-induced
nuclear processes in H(0). The first step is the laser-induced transfer of
the H2(0) pairs in the ultra-dense material H(0) from excitation state *s* =
2 (with 2.3 pm H-H distance) to *s* = 1 (at 0.56 pm H-H distance) [2
The state *s* = 1 may lead to a fast nuclear reaction. It is suggested that
this involves two nucleons, probably two protons. The first particles
formed and observed [16
are kaons, both neutral and charged, and also pions. From the six quarks in
the two protons, three kaons can be formed in the interaction. Two protons
correspond to a mass of 1.88 GeV while three kaons correspond to 1.49 GeV.
Thus, the transition 2 p → 3 K is downhill in internal energy and releases
390 MeV. If pions are formed directly, the energy release may be even
larger. The kaons formed decay normally in various processes to charged
pions and muons. In the present experiments, the decay of kaons and pions
is observed directly normally through their decay to muons, while the muons
leave the chamber before they decay due to their easier penetration and
much longer lifetime."
Holmlid is now saying that proton decay is where all the energy and mesons
are derived from.
The time variation of the collector signals was initially assumed to be due
to time-of-flight of the ejected particles from the target to the
collectors. Even the relatively low particle velocity of 10–20 MeV u-1 found
with this assumption [21
is not explainable as originating in ordinary nuclear fusion. The highest
energy particles from normal D+D fusion are neutrons with 14.1 MeV and
protons with 14.7 MeV [57
The high-energy protons are only formed by the D + 3He reaction step, which
is relatively unlikely and for example not observed in our laser-induced
D+D fusion study in D(0) [14
Any high-energy neutrons would not be observed in the present experiments.
Thus, ordinary fusion D+D cannot give the observed particle velocities.
Further, similar particle velocities are obtained also from the
laser-induced processes in p(0) as seen in Figs 4
where no ordinary fusion process can take place. Thus, it is apparent that
the particle energy observed is derived from other nuclear processes than
ordinary fusion. It is clear that such laser-induced nuclear processes
exist in p(0) as well as in D(0). The low laser intensity used here, of the
order of 3×10^12 W cm-2 makes it impossible to directly accelerate the
particles (especially the neutral ones) to high energies. For example, in
more than 10^19 W cm-2 was used to accelerate heavy ions to > 1 MeV
thus close to 10^7 higher intensity than used here.
In contradiction to the PP fusion theory of the Sun's nuclear reaction,
proton decay is the true source of the Sun's energy.
Rossi now beleives that proton decay powers the Sun
Ultradense hydrogen H(0) is a very dense hydrogen cluster phase with H-H
distances in the picometer range. It has been studied experimentally in
several publications from our group. A theoretical model exists which
agrees well with laser-pulse-induced time-of-flight spectra and with
rotational spectroscopy emission spectra. Coulomb explosions in H(0) in
spin state *s* = 1 generate protons with kinetic energies larger than the
retaining gravitational energy at the photosphere of the Sun. The required
proton kinetic energy above 2 keV has been directly observed in published
experiments. Such protons may be ejected from the Sun and are proposed to
form the solar wind. The velocity distributions of the protons are
calculated for three different ejecting modes from spin state *s* = 1. They
agree well with both the fast and the slow solar winds. The best agreement
is found for H(0) cluster sizes of 3 and 20–50 atoms; such clusters have
been studied experimentally previously. The properties of ultradense
hydrogen H(0) give also a few novel possibilities to explain the high
corona temperature of the Sun.
Plain Language Summary
The solar wind contains protons from the Sun with high velocity. The
mechanism for their ejection from the strong gravitation at the Sun's
surface has been debated for a long time. Protons with high enough energy
can be ejected from a condensed form of hydrogen called ultradense
hydrogen, which is stable even at the temperature of the Sun. Experiments
show that such a mechanism exists. Calculations now give good agreement
with the velocities of both the slow and the fast solar winds.
On Thu, Aug 31, 2017 at 10:22 AM, JonesBeene <jone...@pacbell.net> wrote:
> Proton-proton fusion is of such low probability that it is almost a waste
> of time to think that it has relevance in the real world, despite the
> mainstream view. We see gamma radiation in stars with or without fusion
> (even Jupiter and the gas giants have lots of gamma emission) but this
> usually derives from positron/electron events, not fusion. A related
> phenomenon used to be called Wheeler’s “quantum foam” but the term has gone
> out of favor. (Wiki has an entry). A real proton/proton fusion event would
> be akin to winning every prize in the lottery on every draw for a year in a
> row… and has no applicability to LENR because of rarity.
> There has to be a better crossover explanation - but proton fusion in so
> engrained that it will be difficult to weed out. Even Ed Storms has fallen
> for it.
> As an alternative to proton-proton fusion, there is a fully reversible
> diproton reaction with asymmetry. The diproton reaction is the most common
> reaction in the universe but it always reverses quickly. It is assumed to
> be net neutral in energy, mainly because of the assumption that proton mass
> is quantized - but that assumption is probably wrong - and each reaction
> event could have small gain contributory to stellar CNO fusion which is
> real: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CNO_cycle
> Bottom line, if the proton has variable mass, then the reversible diproton
> reaction alone can power a star or it can be contributory . A population of
> protons which is not quantized can capture and convert mass to energy in
> several ways including the complete annihilation event of Holmlid. This has
> relevance to LENR and at one time here, I was promoting an alternative
> hypothesis for Ni-H gain called RPF – or Reversible Proton Fusion... but,
> alas - there is nothing new under the sun, as they say and someone had
> already thought of it.
> In the “small world” category, or maybe it is in the meme category – a
> theorist who lives not far away, came up with the same suggestion earlier.
> “Variable mass theories in relativistic quantum mechanics as an explanation
> for anomalous low energy nuclear phenomena” by Mark Davidson. Worth a read.
> *From: *Nigel Dyer <l...@thedyers.org.uk>
> In the text of the wikipedia page about proton proton fusion
> It says that in the first stage, when two protons fuse, a gamma ray
> proton is produced. However this is not shown in the diagram, or in
> anyone elses diagram, or in anyone else's text. Is the wikipedia page
> incorrect. If no gamma ray photon is produced then where does the
> excess energy (0.42MeV) from this first stage go?