The history/science of efficient fuel combustion in the ICE is almost 
completely understood, right? Any previously unknown gain in efficiency would 
be a surprise. However, “cavitation” in the sense of a mechanism for a net 
energy gain –is one feature/parameter which is not well understood. Brian Ahern 
has been involved for years with a technology of simply adding HV electrons to 
a diesel, which sounds easy but in practice is not simple. Cavitation could 
improve that task.

In general when a gasoline powered ICE is converted from carburetion to 
manifold fuel injection, there is a 2-3% efficiency gain. And if converted to 
direct injection (GDI) like a diesel, then the efficiency gain is closer to 5%, 
regardless of any change in compression ratio. Therefore it is reasonable to 
suggest net gain is coming from the higher pressure cavitation of the injector 
in GDI. This could be optimized by even higher pressure injection (Mercedes has 
actually patented this process). If increased cavitation were to be combined 
with a source of HV electrons then the net gain could be forthcoming beyond any 
expectations.

To backtrack, the higher efficiency of diesel engines is normally considered to 
be related to increased compression ratio – and no doubt most of it is. Diesel 
fuel has slightly more energy content but that is negated by higher unburnt 
particulates. Higher compression ratio is the biggest contributor to diesel 
efficiency, but we need to ask: is cavitation responsible for any of the diesel 
efficiency gain? If so, can this finding be used with gasoline too? Can direct 
injection be used to add electrical charge (at the injector)? 

In principle, it seems likely that cavitation bubbles would be an easier way to 
channel electrical charge into an engine since bubbles would protect against 
grounding. CES apparently demonstrate that ions are gainful, even with no net 
polarity imbalance, and their work may have implications for hydrocarbons. 
Given new findings about cavitation in general, it is possible that a part of 
the extra efficiency of the diesel configuration relates to cavitation, even 
using the standard diesel. This could be optimized for the GDI configuration 
(gasoline direct injection) once it is better understood. Moreover, since the 
cavitation route itself has been previously unrecognized as gainful in itself, 
there may be additional ways to make it even better (assuming it is gainful on 
its own accord).

In cavitation and sonoluminescence  the extra energy content  is said to relate 
to “bubble collapse” and shock waves - with the Casimir effect possibly 
entering into the mix. Nigel has suggested LENR possibly catalyzed by the 
neutrino flux. A “dense hydrogen” or hydrino route is also possible and 
Casimir+UDH would be a hybrid suggestion. This niche begs for more study since 
every 1% gain – when multiplied by several hundred million vehicle driven daily 
is likely to be worth about $10 billion to society yearly, not to mention less 
pollution. Even this week, a News story exposes the fact that most SUVs and 
light trucks are getting less than 20 mpg in the 2017 model year. That is 
unacceptable and way too low - we have been lulled into thinking gasoline will 
not surge in price soon, but it will.

Perhaps all of this will be made moot by the upcoming switch to battery powered 
hybrids. That could take years.

We seem to be way too complacent in not providing better fuel economy NOW, even 
if battery power arrives sooner than expected.



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