Higgins—Regarding your comments: The spectrometer Rossi is said to have used, if connected via fiber optics, would be limited in its effective range of wavelength monitoring from 200 nm to about 2200 nm. The peak of black body radiation at 2300 C is in this range, However, the peak as a function of radiance is fairly flat in this range. The peak wavelengths that Rossi’s demo displayed were not associated with the black body radiation temperature of
I would guess that Rossi does not want spectrum data publicized, since it would tell too much about the mechanisms at work. The conducting medium within the plasma may be made up of Li ions, microscopic Li droplets, microscopic Al droplets and Al ions. The H is either absorbed by the Ni or remains as a H2 molecule. This assumption of the composition of gas is what I have called a “dusty” plasma expecting that the material is not strictly an ionic substance. I have never heard of neutral plasmas, which neutrality Rossi has indicated is characteristic of his QX reactor. If the LENR produces alphas and results from a magnetic field with its directionality, the alpha emission may also display a related directionality. Finally the signal driving the reactor may be a quadrupole magnetic field to produce nuclear spin states that resonate with lattice electron spin states. Such a driver may require significant energy to achieve the proper resonances with enough energy to change the nuclear energy states and allow nuclear transmutation. To be useful as a heat source the change of potential energy and increase of the lattice energy or kinetic energy of emitted alphas would have to be substantially greater than the energy needed to create the signal driving the reactor. Bob Cook Sent from Mail<https://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=550986> for Windows 10 ________________________________ From: Bob Higgins <rj.bob.higg...@gmail.com> Sent: Friday, December 1, 2017 7:08:35 AM To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: [Vo]:Rossi dog & pony show with full audio As I understand it, Rossi is said to have recorded the spectrum using something like an Ocean Optics fiber spectrometer (https://oceanoptics.com/product/ocean-fx/). A typical gas discharge spectrum will be a mix of blackbody for the plasma and lines from the key atomic and ionic species. This spectrometer is capable of recording the full spectrum as a function of time so as to show the different stages of plasma formation, discharge, and turn-OFF. It is highly likely that the spectrum will change significantly in each of these phases. The stronger the lines are, the more likely that the gas is low pressure. Stronger blackbody plasma discharge is characteristic of higher gas pressure. The plasma will shut off quickly when electrical discharge is stopped. There can be fluorescence during the discharge and afterglow (phosphorescence) in the system after discharge, depending upon the impurities in the glass tube (which could be implanted during discharge). Afterglow does not per se indicate any LENR reaction. Since alphas would have been emitted omnidirectionally, it would not produce a DC current through the tube of any significance. The axial geometry of such a tube would mean that the side walls would get most of any alphas that might be generated. There is no evidence that this is a dusty plasma reactor. Whenever the tube cools off, the Li vapor would condense on the side walls taking any "dust" with it. In a dusty plasma reactor it takes a great deal of effort to keep the dust in the plasma. Suhas used ultrasound. Egely uses an acoustically resonant reactor body. In the descriptions I have heard, I see no evidence that Rossi's QX is based on dusty plasma technology. Instead, it appears to be only a Li + H2 plasma. It is possible that some Ni could be evaporated from the electrodes, but I believe it would condense quickly on the side walls of the tube near the electrodes - I don't believe it would stay in plasma. These areas of condensed Ni on the side walls could be LENR active though. On Thu, Nov 30, 2017 at 10:09 PM, Axil Axil <janap...@gmail.com<mailto:janap...@gmail.com>> wrote: Mats Lewan is said to have seen the QX produce deep blue color when running at 100%. Even at 30%, the QX produces light at between 400 to 500 nm that I saw recorded with my own eyes recorded on the spectrograph as seen in the video. I don't beleive the info on light production that is coming from Rossi. That info might be self serving. Rossi might be seeing what he wants to see. Rossi says that the light produced was measured at 1100nm. This is infrared light and is not even visible. How can Rossi get a valid blackbody heat reading when the QX is running at 30% power level? Those people at the Demo should have reacted to this discontinuity in logic during the demo in real time. On Thu, Nov 30, 2017 at 11:08 PM, bobcook39...@hotmail.com<mailto:bobcook39...@hotmail.com> <bobcook39...@hotmail.com<mailto:bobcook39...@hotmail.com>> wrote: Higgins— I agree with your comment about a high voltage (short) at the beginning of the reaction in the QX reactor. It is consistent with the flash of light which can be seen at the end of the reactor upon the initial power application. Your assessment does not address the source of energy during the off phases of the control circuit. I would argue that the reaction producing heat is occurring in the Ni electrode with the Li acting as a good convective heat transfer agent from the electrode to the outer circumference of the reactor where the water cooling occurs. The electric current is generated by the net positive charge that results from the reaction that produces energetic alphas that cross the annular space where the dusty plasma exists and charge the outer surface of the reactor. I disagree with Axil that the suncell hydrino reaction is like the QX reaction. The spectra of the two reactions are not reported to be alike. Bob Cook . ________________________________ From: Axil Axil <janap...@gmail.com<mailto:janap...@gmail.com>> Sent: Thursday, November 30, 2017 10:50:23 AM To: vortex-l Subject: Re: [Vo]:Rossi dog & pony show with full audio The QX is a downsized version of the SunCell with the plasma ball reduced to the size of a speck of dust. You can understand what is happening inside the QX by looking at what is happening inside the SunCell. The metal used in the QX is aluminum whereas the metal used to support the plasma inside the SunCell is silver.Lithium is not a reactant and remains in the vapor form. The hydrogen pressure is very high because the amount of solid fuel that is placed inside the QX must be substantial in order for the fuel loading to be manageable. Rossi cannot work with(load) nanograms of fuel On Thu, Nov 30, 2017 at 12:44 PM, Bob Higgins <rj.bob.higg...@gmail.com<mailto:rj.bob.higg...@gmail.com>> wrote: In the experiments I am aware of, waveforms were only tried as applied to the heater coils (or in my case to a magnetic field coil). There was no evidence of enhanced XH. This could be because the waveform was not well "coupled" to the active medium. These were heat driven Parkhomov-like experiments. In the case of others that have seen benefit from such waves, the stimulus was applied more directly to the reaction medium - electrolysis or to the hydrogenated wires. I believe there could be benefit in such stimuli, but it would have to be appropriately coupled to the reaction. In a conversation I was having with MFMP folks, I had this to say about what I thought was described for the QX reactor and power supply: Since it has been suggested/said that Li is present inside the QX, during a discharge it will be in gas phase; and when it is turned OFF, it will condense on the inside of the tube and conduct across the electrodes. Then, upon re-start, the tube will be shorted with this condensed Li metal path and a high current will be needed to heat the Li to boiling. Once the Li path evaporates, the tube will have to be run in gas discharge mode. So initially the tube is a short and needs a high current, low voltage to begin, and then it has to switch into gas discharge mode which is low current high voltage. Also, in the gas discharge mode, the supply will have to be ballasted as a current source. This is why the supply is complex, the waveform is complex, and why it is also difficult to characterize what energy has been supplied over time to the tube. There is the claim that there is balanced electron/ion flow. That would be the H+ & Li+ positive ions and e- negative electrons conducting bodies. In a plasma tube, the plasma itself can be at 2700K while the glass itself can be kept cool with water cooling. The heat is transferred by the plasma atoms striking the glass, and there will be a cooler gas buffer zone around the inside of the glass where it is too cool to be in plasma state - insulating the core plasma discharge. The higher the gas pressure, the more power that must be added to the plasma to compensate for the cooling of the glass tube on the plasma. This tells me that the gas pressure inside the QX is probably pretty low, probably under 50 torr, and maybe more like 10 torr. The problem you would have is keeping the Li from condensing on the glass tube in that cool zone and shorting out the plasma discharge. It may take care of itself - as the lithium condenses on the glass, the plasma will go to it instead of the electrodes causing the Li to re-boil (sort of like an arc discharging to a piece of metal wire brought into the gap between a spark discharge). Rossi has not demonstrated that his tube produces XE to any of us. We basically have to take the unreliable, untrustworthy word of a technically incompetent scoundrel that he is producing any XE - and on a waveform that would be very difficult to characterize by someone that is technically sound. On Thu, Nov 30, 2017 at 10:31 AM, JonesBeene <jone...@pacbell.net<mailto:jone...@pacbell.net>> wrote: Bob Have you (or MFMP) experimented with any variation of the Dardik superwave? I think it is more than coincidence that Rossi, Brillouin, Kimmel, Energetics etc, etc have employed interfering waveforms as the input power. Even if Rossi’s recent effort was a null result, it is true that his PS seems unusually lossy. Sadly, that is the most hopeful thing that anyone can honestly say about it…. From: Bob Higgins<mailto:rj.bob.higg...@gmail.com> * the demo served no net purpose - except possibly to those there that were granted greater access to the data. You and I should take it as a presumed null experiment since there was inadequate data shared to show any XE. JonesBeene wrote: * The most important Euro Patent from Dardik, El-Boher et al entitled "Pulsed low energy nuclear reaction power generators" EP 1656678 B1 with a grant date of 2004. This is also known as the "superwave" patent. It is similar and precedes the Brillouin IP - and will also rain on the Godes parade, if it turns out that structured waveforms are the key to success.