The “binuclear atom”– has been known but ignored since the early days of LENR.
1991 to be exact. It is metastable, and that could be part of the problem.
The metastability of the binuclear atom could disappear in a host matrix
temporarily, and additionally could supply fast ions on decay - even without
More recently, there has been ongoing speculation about getting deuterons close
enough (naturally by a densification process) so as to benefit from the strong
force, in order to facilitate fusion.
Protons are known to pair naturally, but as it turns out – way back in 1991 in
an overlooked paper, the exact modality was clearly identified and with some
formalism – the binuclear atom. There are several theories of dense hydrogen
which may or may not depend on nucleon pairing, but this one – possibly the
best one - has been ignored until recently. In fact was not published online
for 17 years after it was presented.
“(D+D+)2e− binuclear atoms as activated precursors in cold and warm fusion”
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 668 (1991); https://doi.org/10.1063/1.40685
By G. F. Cerofolini and N. Re
Here is a piece on nucleon pairing:
More recently, this binuclear atom mechanism of deuteron pairing was revisited
by Accomazzi. Paolo Accomazzi in the “ Journal of Condensed Matter Nuclear
Science” 25 (2017) 68–75. Available in the LENR-CANR library. This is the
latest compilation from Biberian.
Amazing to realize that this route for fusion has received so little
attention in the past.
It can be understood to explain both cold fusion and also Mills and Holmlid,
as the author (Accomazzi) implies. Notably Cerofolini and Re were not involved
in LENR and moved on to other pursuits - and that detail may indicate why
their paper has been overlooked all these years.