Hi Robin,

Although what you say is true, there is a category of battery which operates on 
the principle of intercalation. Many salts will intercalate into graphene 
without degradation over time.

I believe that all car batteries will move away from metals especially cobalt - 
and use structured carbon electrodes for both polarities within the next few 
years – the so-called carbon-carbon approach. The advantages are huge. The 
holdback has been the high cost of graphene but recent breakthroughs now  allow 
graphene to be made from cheap graphite. It can be more conductive than most 
metals and is superior to graphene at 1 percent of the cost.

You might enjoy the YouTube channel of Robert Murray-Smith, a one-of-a-kind 
genius who demonstrates the actual construction and testing of these 
carbon-carbon batteries and ultracaps. There is a chance that some of the 
performance advantages are due to densified hydrogen (aka hydrino hydride) but 
that is not proved or even discussed. The DIY all-carbon batteries can alreadyf 
outperform the Tesla lithium battery even as crude prototypes.

Oxygen and many other oxidizers do not work well with this type of all-carbon 
electrode system  as it tends to form carbon monoxide and degrade the electrode 
after only a few dozens of recharges. An intercalated salt does not bind to the 
carbon in a permanent way. AFAIK iodine has not be tried yet - but the energy 
density of sodium-sulfate with carbon electrodes  is actually better than 
lithium-ion with nickel cobalt.

From: mix...@bigpond.com

In reply to  JonesBeene's message of Thu, 18 Jan 2018 10:40:46 -0800:
>Elon Musk may have gone all-in for lithium too soon (but Li does work with 
>Iodine in a traditional electrolyte system,  so maybe he is already there).

Iodine would not be my first choice for an oxidant in a battery, because it's so
heavy. I think it would probably be more productive to work on developing air
based batteries that use Oxygen as the oxidant, particularly as it doesn't need
to be included in the battery mass. This is especially so if the end product is
water which can be disposed of into the environment.


Robin van Spaandonk

local asymmetry = temporary success

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