I haven't had the time to catch up on the many posts on this subject, so hopefully this will not duplicate too much or be irrelevant. Also, I don't have much time for follow up right now, but I figure it is better to post this than not.

The following is based on the assumption that the Rossi et al experiments and patent are as presented by Rossi, and in any case the following comments are potentially applicable to any protium based heavy transmutation experimental domain.

BACKGROUND RELATED TO PROTIUM BASED LENR

My thoughts on both protium (and deuterium) based heavy element transmutation LENR, in which Rossi appears to be engaged, especially given the observation of transmutation of Ni to CU, have already been fairly well covered in my Journal of Nuclear Physics (blog) article, "Cold Fusion Nuclear Reactions" at:

http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com/files/Cold%20Fusion% 20Nuclear%20Reactions%20-%20Horace%20Heffner.pdf

http://tinyurl.com/28o3s66

and in references therein to things I wrote, like the "Notes on Report Contents" in:

http://www.mtaonline.net/~hheffner/dfRpt

or the table:

http://www.mtaonline.net/~hheffner/RptB.pdf


METALLIC GLASSES

Given that Rossi is using a nano-powder comprised of Ni and other elemental additives, and has observed melting or sintering of the nano-powder, it is a reasonable hypothesis that, intentionally or not, a metallic glass is involved at some level.

The properties of various hydrogen loaded metallic glasses have been studied. As noted on page 35 of my Journal of Nuclear Physics (blog) article at:

http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com/files/Cold%20Fusion% 20Nuclear%20Reactions%20-%20Horace%20Heffner.pdf

http://tinyurl.com/28o3s66

"Hydrogen properties have been investigated in a wide variety of fcc metals, bcc
metals, hexagonal metals, alloys and metallic glasses.65"

"63 Wipf, H., Editor 1997, Topics in Applied Physics, Hydrogen in Metals II, Properties and applications,Springer-Verlag,1997,ISBN 3-540-61639, p. 141-142
64 Ibid, p. 135
65 Ibid, pp. 59-75"

Metallic glasses specifically listed as investigated on page 74 of the above Wipf reference include:

Cu_x Ti_(1-x)
Fe_x B_(1-x)
Fe_x Ni_y P_z B_(1-x-y-z)
Fe_x Zr_(1-x)
Ni_x Pd_y P_(1-x-y)
Ni_x Zr_(1-x)
Pd_x Cu_y Si_(1-x-y)
Pd_x Si_(1-x)
Zr_x Rh_(1-x)

Especially noteworthy are the glasses Ni_x Pd_y P_(1-x-y), Fe_x Ni_y P_z B_(1-x-y-z), and Ni_x Zr_(1-x), which contain Ni.

Further noted on Wipf page 74: "A chief effect of the configurational disorder in these glasses is that the jump rates of the hydrogen and the energies (or occupational probabilities) of the interstitial sites, which can be occupied by the hydrogen, vary drastically and randomly from site to site."

"A second consequence of structural disorder is a suppression of the formation of hydride phases so that large concentrations can be found, and investigated, without any substantial changes in the structure of the glass." The potential relevance of this to LENR should be obvious.

It is of further possible interest that "the chemical diffusion coefficient increases in general with rising hydrogen content." This is because "the hydrogen tends to occupy the interstitial sites with energies as low as possible. At high concentrations hydrogen has to reside on energetically less favorable [less bound] sites. "This means that with rising hydrogen concentration, the hydrogen atoms need to pass increasingly lower potential barriers in the diffusion process ...". The hopping rate thus increases with loading, a fortunate relationship for triggering LENR.

There are other clear benefits to these disorder properties, especially low granularity large variations in hopping barriers, benefits that are specifically related to the deflation fusion theory as described in my above referenced article and its references. Also notable is the likelihood of similar properties in the amorphous alloys and intermetallics noted on page 35 of "Cold Fusion Nuclear Reactions".

Some other note regarding metallic glasses can be found in these vortex posts:

http://www.mail-archive.com/vortex-l@eskimo.com/msg29518.html

http://www.mail-archive.com/vortex-l@eskimo.com/msg29520.html

The Hoffman PhD thesis referenced in the above above is now located at:

http://thesis.library.caltech.edu/3438/1/Hofmann_PhD.pdf

THE MAGNETIC ENVIRONMENT OF METALLIC GLASSES

There are important magnetic issues related to metallic glasses. The disorder properties of metallic glasses have another potentially useful property, which is production of a highly variable and potent magnetic field gradient environment.

As noted in my "Deflation Fusion" article in Infinite Energy:

http://www.mtaonline.net/%7Ehheffner/DeflationFusion2.pdf

"It has been noted that in some cases magnetic fields improve the success rate at producing LENR. This is highly consistent with the deflation fusion concept in that a magnetic force aligned between hydrogen locations and lattice atom locations provides a potential that greatly increases the probability of tunneling in the deflated state. However, it is most notable that it is not a magnetic field alone which should have an effect, it is a magnetic gradient that provides a magnetic force and thus an increased tunneling probability for deflated state nuclei. Attempts to produce magnetically enhanced LENR rates should thus attempt to optimize both the magnitude and direction of the magnetic gradient across the lattice, not just place a magnetic field through the lattice. It is especially noteworthy that powerful magnetic gradients can be induced within a lattice by use of coherent x-rays."

It is difficult to impose extreme magnetic gradients except at atomic distances by atomic or molecular means, but the use of metallic glasses provides the feasibility of including or imbedding high magnetic moment target nuclei in the glass, as well as providing very short range and thus high magnetic field gradient conditions. A magnetic field may assist in spin pre-alignment and thus spin coupling and net magnetic attraction, but it is the magnetic gradient that provides force upon electrostatically neutral particles such as deflated hydrogen nuclei, and thus which provides a net energy which is favorable, and also otherwise unavailable, to neutral particle tunneling events. High magnetic gradient environments should thus favor heavy transmutation events, vs hydrogen fusion events, because the inter-nuclear distances, the tunneling distances, are shorter for heavy transmutation causing events. The distance between interstitial sites is larger than the distance from an interstitial site and a neighboring lattice atom. Ordinary D-D cold fusion relies principally on electrostatic forces and shielding to make tunneling events between lattice sites energetically favorable, while transmutational tunneling events rely on magnetic gradients because the neutral (deflated, i.e. cloaked) hydrogen must do the tunneling. Electrostatic force can thus not provide the net energy required for heavy transmutation tunneling. In the case of ordinary hydrogen fusion tunneling events it is the uncloaked hydrogen which for the most part does the tunneling to a static cloaked hydrogen interstitial locus. Site hopping in the D-D case is due primarily to an electrostatic force, not a magnetic force.

It is clear that large clusters of hydrogen can also form in metallic glasses. It seems to me that hydrogen cluster events for large clusters are driven by other mechanisms, related to Bose Condensates, as described in the 1996 "The Bose Condensate Hypothesis of Cold FUsion" article here:

http://mtaonline.net/~hheffner/BoseHyp.pdf

Fusion of such clusters should require an external stimulus, such as by cosmic rays, adjacent fusion reactions, or by the fast moving deuterons in the Kasagi experiments, or fast moving electrons in the Kamada experiments. In those experiments large hydrogen clusters were formed by hydrogen bombardment of metals, and clearly produced nuclear events when the clusters were appropriately stimulated, even though the stimulation energies were effective at anomalously low values by standard theory.


OPTIMAL ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS

As noted above, a magnetic gradient is required to affect the energy potential for a tunneling event for heavy element transmutation LENR. However, a strong magnetic field can increase the probability of N-pole-to-S-pole nuclear spin alignment and thus a strong magnetic gradient between H and heavy nuclei. The ideal field alignment for heavy transmutation then is a magnetic field gradient aligned with the magnetic field and with the lattice internal electrostatic field. There was no evidence presented that Rossi is using externally imposed magnetic or electrostatic fields, in fact he stated on thermal input was used, but such fields might be involved internally to a metallic glass or other catalytic agent. Use of externally applied fields is of course an area worth study, especially extreme magnetic fields and high internal fields enabled by use of high resistance LENR catalytic materials.


OPERATION ABOVE DEBYE TEMPERATURE

It is worthy of further note that Rossi's device is at least cycled above the Debye temperature for Ni (450 deg. C) and produces heat there. This to me is some evidence that the nuclear active environment is indeed an amorphous glass. It may also indicate the Debye temperature of the medium is higher than that of nickel.

It is of possible significance that operation above the Debye temperature reduces electron based magnetic properties. This could reduce electron based magnetic screening of the nuclei, and thereby increase magnetic energy enabled tunneling to target heavy nuclei.


THERMAL REGULATION

As described in the "THERMAL CYCLING AND HIGH TEMPERATURE ALLOYS" section of my I.E. article "Deflation Fusion", which can be found at:

http://www.mtaonline.net/~hheffner/DeflationFusion.pdf

thermal cycling is key to operating in high temperature gas mode. A high temperature can be used to enable high hydrogen diffusion rates and fast high concentration loading, followed by a temperature reduction which then actually brings on the excess heat, through orbital stressing and thus deflated state hydrogen concentration increasing. Rossi actually notes the stability of operating at about 400 deg. C., which is just below the Ni Debye temperature. However, depending on the mix of lattice elements and temperature, non-thermal (non-phonon based) orbital stressing may not be required for increasing the concentration of deflated hydrogen to a value that sustains excess heat production.

If a lattice material is designed to produce excess heat only upon temperature reduction post loading, then thermal regulation is not a problem. However, unexpected reactions, such as the build-up of hyperons, as described in the "Cold Fusion Nuclear Reactions" article, or of excessively active heavy LENR byproducts, should obviously always be considered a possibility and justification for appropriate safety precautions.

Best regards,

Horace Heffner
http://www.mtaonline.net/~hheffner/




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