*13 April 2010*



*<Bandung, 18 -24 April 1955>*



Fiftyfive years ago, a significant hitorical/political event took place 
at Bandung, Indonesia. The First Afro-Asian Conference -- f i r s t of 
its kind in the history of the two contintents -- was held from 18 -- 24 
April 1955. Twentynine countries attended that important meeting.

A significant and historical document was unaninously adopted: THE TEN 

The meeting constitutea a great impetus to the national independence 
struggle of the

Afro-Asian peoples and countries. Asserting themselves as an 
independentt force, they are neither allied to or a substitute of the 
Western Bloc, nor the Eastern Bloc countries.

This Afro-Asian independent political movement that started at Bandung 
(1955) developed 6 years later, into a formal political movement called 

* * *

 From today on, a series of important documents of different sources on 
the HISTORICAL BANDUNG CONFERENCE I will be published in this column:

* * *

    History of the Afro-Asian Conference:

The first large-scale *Asian--African* or *Afro--Asian 
Conference*---also known as the *Bandung Conference*---was a meeting of 
Asian and African states, most of which were newly independent, which 
took place on April 18-24, 1955 in Bandung, Indonesia

The conference was organized by Indonesia, Burma, Pakistan, Ceylon (Sri 
Langka) and India, and was coordinated by Roeslan Abdulgani, Secretary 
General of the Indonesian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The conference's 
stated aims were to promote Afro-Asian economic and cultural cooperation 
and to oppose colonialism or neo-colonialism by the United States, the 
Soviet Union , or any other imperialistic nations.

The conference was an important step toward the crystallization of the 

* * *

The conference reflected what they regarded as a reluctance by the 
Western powers to consult with them on decisions affecting Asia in a 
setting of Cold War tensions; their concern over tension between the 
People's Republic of China and the United States; their desire to lay 
firmer foundations for China's peace relations with themselves and the 
West; their opposition to colonialism, especially French influence in 
North Africa and French colonial rule in Algeria; and Indonesia's desire 
to promote its case in the dispute with the Netherlands over western New 
Guinea (Irian Barat)

SOEKARNO,the first president of the Republic of INDONESIA, portrayed 
himself as the leader of this group of nations, naming it *NEFOS* (Newly 
Emerging Forces).

Major debate centered around the question of whether Soviet policies in 
Eastern Europe and Central Asia should be censured along with Western 
colonialism. A consensus was reached in which "colonialism in all of its 
manifestations" was condemned, implicitly censuring the Soviet Union, as 
well as the West.

CHINA played an important role in 
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kashmir_Princess> the conference and 
strengthened its relations with other Asian nations. Having survived an 
asassination attempt by foreign intelligence services on the way to the 
conference, the Chinese premier,ZHOU EN LAI, displayed a moderate and 
conciliatory attitude that tended to quiet fears of some anticommunist 
delegates concerning China's intentions.

Later in the conference, Zhou Enlai signed on to the article in the 
concluding declaration stating* that **overseas Chinese* 
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Overseas_Chinese>* **owed primary loyalty 
to their home nation, rather than to China* -- a highly sensitive issue 
for both his Indonesian hosts and for several other participating countries.

A 10-point "Declaration on Promotion of World Peace and Cooperation," 
incorporating the principles of the UNO was adopted unanimously:


      /Respect for fundamental human rights and for the purposes and
      principles of the charter of the United Nations/


      /Respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all


      /Recognition of the equality of all races and of the equality of
      all nations large and small/


      /Abstention from intervention or interference in the internal
      affairs of another country/


      /Respect for the right of each nation to defend itself, singly or
      collectively, in conformity with the charter of the United Nations/


      /(a) Abstention from the use of arrangements of collective defence
      to serve any particular interests of the big powers
      (b) Abstention by any country from exerting pressures on other


      /Refraining from acts or threats of aggression or the use of force
      against the territorial integrity or political independence of any


      /Settlement of all international disputes by peaceful means, such
      as negotiation, conciliation, arbitration or judicial settlement
      as well as other peaceful means of the parties own choice, in
      conformity with the charter of the United Nations/


      /Promotion of mutual interests and cooperation/


      /Respect for justice and international obligations./

The Final Communique of the Conference underscored the need for 
developing countries to loosen their economic dependence on the leading 
industrialized nations by providing technical assistance to one another 
through the exchange of experts and technical assistance for 
developmental projects, as well as the exchange of technological 
know-how and the establishment of regional training and research institutes.

The United States of America, through its Secretary of State, John 
Foster Dulles, shunned the conference and was not officially 
represented. However, Representative Adam Clayton Powell (D-N.Y.) 
attended the conference and spoke at some length in favor of American 
foreign policy there which assisted the United States's standing with 
the Non-Aligned. When Powell returned to the United States to report on 
the conference, the House of Representatives honored him for his 

The conference of Bandung was preceded by the Bogo Conference (1954) and 
was followed by the Belgrade Conference (1961), which led to the 
establishment of the Non Aligned Movement. In later years, conflicts 
between the nonaligned nations eroded the solidarity expressed at Bandung.

To mark the fiftieth anniversary of the Conference, Heads of State and 
Government of Asian-African countries attended a new Asian-African 
Summit from 20-24 April 2005 in Bandung and Jakarta . Some sessions of 
the new conference took place in Gedung Merdeka (Independence Building), 
the venue of the original conference. The conference concluded by 
establishing the New Asian-African Strategic Partnership (NAASP).

* * *

    Origins of the Non Aligned Movement

Independent countries, who chose not to join any of the Cold War 
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_War> blocs, were also known as non 
aligned nations.

The term "non-alignment" itself was coined by Indian Prime Minister 
Nehru,, during his speech in 1954 in Colombo, Sri Lanka. In this speech, 
Nehru described the five pillars to be used as a guide for Sino-Indian 
relations, which were first put forth b Chinese Premier Zhou En-lai 
called Pancha Sheel, these principles would later serve as the basis of 
the Non-Aligned Movement.The five principles were:


      Mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and
      sovereignty <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sovereignty>


      Mutual non-aggression


      Mutual non-interference in domestic affairs


      Equality and mutual benefit


      Peaceful co-existence

A significant milestone in the development of the Non-aligned movement 
was the 1955Bandung Conference, a conference of Asian and African states 
hosted by Indonesian president SUKARNO, has give a significant 
contribution to promote this movement. The attending nations declared 
their desire not to become involved in the Cold War and adopted a 
"declaration on promotion of world peace and cooperation", which 
included Nehru's five principles. Six years after Bandung, an initiative 
of Yugoslav Presiden Tito led to the first official Non-Aligned Movement 
Summit, which was held in September 1961 in Belgrade.

At the Lusaka Conference in September 1970, the member nations added as 
aims of the movement the peaceful resolution of disputes and the 
abstention from the big power military alliances and pacts. Another 
added aim was opposition to stationing of military bases in foreign 

The founding fathers of the Non-aligned movement were:SUKARNO OF 
NASSER OF EGYPT, KWAME NKRUMAH OF GHANA.. Their actions were known as 
'The Initiative of Five'.

(Source: Wikipedia)

* * *

[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

Kirim email ke