Monday, Jun. 07, 2010

The Right Might

By Hannah Beech / Semarang

The arrests came as fast as drops of monsoon rain. On Feb. 22, more than 100
Indonesian special police raided a terrorist training camp deep in the
jungles of Sumatra island. Within days they captured 14 suspected Islamic
militants from a shadowy group called al-Qaeda in Aceh that was believed to
have been planning an imminent attack. Then, on March 9, the police
converged on an Internet café near the Indonesian capital Jakarta and
engaged in a firefight that killed Dulmatin, an Afghan-trained explosives
expert with a U.S.-designated $10 million bounty on his head. Among other
attacks, Dulmatin was thought to have masterminded the blasts that struck
two nightclubs on the vacation island of Bali in 2002, leaving 202 people
dead, mostly foreigners. By April 12, the police dragnet had nabbed 10 more
extremists, including a suspect in the 2004 bombing of the Australian
embassy in Jakarta. Another fanatic, who allegedly decapitated three
Christian schoolgirls back in 2005, died in another shoot-out. All told, 48
suspected terrorists were caught within a seven-week period and another
eight killed. In May, a further 16 suspects were arrested and five killed as
police foiled a plot to assassinate Indonesia's President and visiting
foreign dignitaries. Detachment 88 had done it again. 

Indonesia is waging one of the world's most determined campaigns against
terrorism — and much of the credit goes to the country's American-trained
police unit Detachment 88. The horror and audacity of the Bali bombings
proved to be an epiphany for Indonesians, alerting them to the homegrown
extremists in their midst and helping forge a national consensus against
terrorism. The following year, Detachment 88 was set up with the backing of
the U.S. and Australian governments; today, it numbers 400 personnel drawn
from the elite of the Indonesian police's special-operations forces — and it
has built up an extensive intelligence network to nab terrorists. Undercover
operations in which agents pose as itinerant noodle vendors or new members
of a Muslim prayer group enable Detachment 88 to track extremists and
convince some to inform on others. Once top militants are located,
explosives specialists, snipers, forensics teams and surveillance experts
take position. "I've trained guys all over the world, and this unit is one
of the best I've ever seen," says one former trainer of the Indonesian
counterterrorism squad.
<http://www.time.com/time/photogallery/0,29307,1982086,00.html> (See
pictures of the battle against the Taliban.)

But Detachment 88 is more than a shooting machine. In the world's most
populous Muslim-majority nation, cracking down on terrorism isn't just about
cracking heads. Through deradicalization programs, Detachment 88 agents take
on the role of spiritual counselors, working to convince militants of the
error of their ways. Some convicted terrorists now cooperate with the police
in community outreach programs. "You want to know why Indonesia has done
well fighting terrorism?" says psychologist Sarlito Wirawan Sarwono, who
instructs Detachment 88 officers in interrogation tactics. "We have no
Guantánamo prisons. Our police understand the terrorists' psyches. Other
countries can learn from what we do." 

A nation of 17,000 islands spread across more than 5,000 km, Indonesia might
seem too sprawling, messy and diverse to efficiently combat terrorism. While
its 210 million Muslim faithful are overwhelmingly moderate, a small band of
radicals is calling for Indonesia to abandon its secular underpinnings for
an Islamic state. Chief among them are members of Jemaah Islamiah (JI), the
militant group blamed for the 2002 Bali bombings, among other attacks. JI
and other splinter factions were formed by Indonesians with battlefront
experience in Afghanistan and the insurgent-wracked southern Philippines.
Most Indonesians display little of the reflexive anti-American sentiment
common in a country like Pakistan — witness the suspected role of the
Taliban in the failed Times Square car-bomb plot. But the Indonesian
mercenaries returned home believing that the West, and the U.S. in
particular, was the root of all evil. The fact that Indonesia is neither at
war with its neighbors nor harboring a persecuted Muslim minority makes
little difference to these hard-liners. "They preach that Indonesians have
forgotten the core of Islam," says Noor Huda Ismail, founder of the
Institute of International Peace Building in Jakarta, which aims to
deradicalize former terrorism inmates. "Their message is simple: the only
way for Indonesians to prove themselves as good Muslims is through jihad
against the infidel Americans and their allies."
<http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1924804,00.html> (Read "Why
Indonesia's War on Terror Is Far From Over.")

Converting Militants
In 1998, Indonesians overthrew a dictator who had ruled for 32 years and
ushered in a democratic government. It is precisely the nation's status as
the world's third-largest democracy that has fueled Detachment 88's success.
Wary of the military, which enabled strongman Suharto for so many years,
Indonesia's parliament gave the police responsibility for the nation's
antiterrorism effort. Instead of imposing an internal security act or other
draconian laws that carried the whiff of dictatorship, Indonesia's newly
democratic leaders decided to prosecute terrorists publicly through the
normal court system. That meant no indefinite detentions that could nurture
further radicalization. And to placate an increasingly vocal Islamic
political movement, the government took the most controversial stance of
all: to consider terrorists not as intractable criminals but ideologically
confused souls. "It is Detachment 88's policy that suspected terrorists be
treated as good men gone astray," says Sidney Jones, an expert on Indonesian
terror with the International Crisis Group, a global conflict watchdog.
"When they are fully in police custody, suspects are treated with kid gloves
in order to get information on the terror network." 

During interrogation sessions, Detachment 88 officers, the majority of whom
are Muslim, allow prisoners to worship, often joining them in prayer. Little
tricks, like greeting inmates in Arabic instead of Indonesian, help convince
terrorists that the police are not infidels, as they have been brainwashed
to believe by radical clerics. On occasion, Muslims with impeccable
religious credentials are brought in by Detachment 88 to discuss Koranic
theology with inmates. "Many of the terrorists have been taught just a few
verses from the Koran that focus on jihad without knowing the context of
these passages," says Muchlis Hanafi, an Indonesian with a Ph.D. in Islamic
studies from Cairo's renowned Al-Azhar University who last year counseled
former JI commanders. The careful handling has paid off. Of the 400-plus
terrorism suspects in custody, the Indonesian police estimate that around
half have either cooperated with police or renounced violence. Sometimes
even the simplest incentives work. Those who cooperate with Detachment 88
officers have had their children's tuition, their wives' employment and even
their prison weddings paid for by the government. 

 <http://www.time.com/time/photogallery/0,29307,1671787,00.html> See
pictures of jihad rehab camp. 

 <http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1840405,00.html> Read
"What's Holding Indonesia Back?" 

Detachment 88's biggest conversion to date is that of Nasir Abbas, an
Afghan-trained former JI senior commander who gave weapons training to
several future bombers. When he was caught in 2003, the Malaysian-born
militant busted his best kung fu moves to get the police to kill him, lest
he suffer the indignity of being captured by infidels. He broke the leg of
one police officer and the arm of another, but the authorities still didn't
shoot. He was too valuable a source to kill. 

At first, Nasir answered all interrogation questions with one phrase: "God
forgive me." Then Bekto Suprapto, now an ex-head of Detachment 88, strode
into his cell and delivered a rapid-fire biography of the militant. Nasir
was intrigued by this man who seemed to know everything about him, including
his disagreement with JI's turn toward killing innocent civilians. He asked
if Bekto would be willing to meet him one-on-one. The police chief agreed,
even removing Nasir's handcuffs while they talked for days. "I thought, I
could kill this old man if I wanted, but he gave me trust and I couldn't
abuse that," recalls Nasir. "In Islam, if someone respects you, you must
respect them back." Today, Nasir, who served just 10 months in jail for
immigration violations, advises Detachment 88 officers on how to catch his
former charges and preaches to terrorism suspects that killing innocent
people in the name of Islam is wrong.
<http://www.time.com/time/photogallery/0,29307,1883150,00.html> (See
pictures of a jihadist's journey.)

Training Days
The pair of fruit-laden trucks rumbling past the rice paddies of Semarang,
central Java, illustrate the spectrum of religiosity in Indonesia's
heartland: one vehicle is decorated with a mural of Osama bin Laden wielding
an AK-47, while the other is emblazoned with a voluptuous woman in an
extreme state of undress. It is near here that some of Indonesia's most
radical clerics spout their hate-filled sermons. It is also where, on a
rambling campus complete with mosque and church, Detachment 88 cadets
undergo part of their counterterror training. (Antiterror units from other
nations like Pakistan and Thailand take classes there too.) The police
academy feels like an oversized playground. An airplane sits ready for
training exercises in which black-clad officers scale up the fuselage like
so many ants. A model hotel and train allow agents to engage in
close-quarter combat drills, while an Olympic-sized pool gives scuba-clad
cadets a chance to practice water infiltration techniques. State-of-the-art
forensic and computer laboratories also encourage indoor education. 

On one scorching day in April, two dozen Detachment 88 cadets toting M4A1
assault rifles crouch in formation near their target. After a quick prayer
session, they breach a wall and shimmy toward a house where a hostage is
supposedly being held. Officers attach explosives to the door and then lob
flash grenades inside. Police snipers man the perimeter. The training
exercise goes well, but reality is far more dangerous. Just weeks after
completing training, one Detachment 88 officer was charged with tackling a
militant wearing an explosives-rigged vest. He survived, but more than a
dozen police have died in other sieges. "Of course I was scared," says one
30-year-old agent who last year participated in a raid against a terrorist
who worked undercover as a florist at the Jakarta Ritz-Carlton Hotel, which
was bombed last July. "But my job as a policeman, as a Muslim, as an
Indonesian, is to capture people who distort Islam and use it to kill."
<http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1818067,00.html> (Read
"Inside the Manhunt.")

The difficulty for any counterterrorism force is that even as one cell is
smashed, new Hydra heads can regenerate with ever-changing plans of attack.
The recent spate of arrests in Indonesia can be viewed as a law-enforcement
success — or as a cautionary tale of how quickly jihadis can proliferate in
remote parts of the archipelago. Although Detachment 88's record in getting
extremists to cooperate through savvy interrogations and prison perks is
impressive, jails have become breeding grounds for terror. One prison guard
in Bali was even swayed by a death-row terrorist to smuggle in a laptop to
raise funds for another attack. Two militants tied to last year's Jakarta
twin hotel bombings, which killed seven people, had earlier participated in
Detachment 88's deradicalization program. "We must give credit to Detachment
88 for their successes in disrupting Indonesia's terror network," says Huda
of the Institute of International Peace Building. "But they try to do
everything: preventing terrorists, catching terrorists, deradicalizing
terrorists. One unit can't do it all." 

Huda is particularly concerned about what happens to terrorists once they
are released from jail. Some may be involved in ad hoc Detachment 88
projects to give former inmates jobs, but there's no comprehensive strategy
to track released prisoners. Huda has a unique insight into the terrorists'
minds. For six years, he attended the infamous Al Mukmin Ngruki Islamic
boarding school in central Java that educated more than 20 Indonesian
terrorist recruits. To prevent recidivism, Huda has arranged employment for
10 convicted terrorists. "Most of these guys aren't poor and can get jobs on
their own," he says. "But what I want to do is pair them with moderate
people who can influence their thinking." 

One of Huda's charges is Harry Setya Rahmadi, a charismatic university
economics graduate who was jailed in 2006 for sheltering Noordin Mohammed
Top, the Malaysian jihadi who was killed in a police shoot-out last
September after having orchestrated five major anti-Western attacks on
Indonesian soil. "I knew that if I cooperated with Detachment 88, I would be
treated well in jail," says Harry, who was released early and now juggles
two jobs, managing a prawn farm and trading foreign exchange online. 

The War Goes On
Another of Huda's ex-prisoners elicits more concern. Yusuf Adirima first
learned about jihad from a video about the war in Bosnia. He ended up at
Camp Hudaibiyah, a JI-run training base in the southern Philippines where
Nasir once taught. Yusuf fought for two years with one of the local Muslim
insurgent groups. "I lived in the jungle and killed many Filipino soldiers,"
he says. After returning to Indonesia, he reunited with other Camp
Hudaibiyah veterans but was arrested in 2003 in connection to a massive arms
cache in Semarang. 

In jail, for whatever reason, Yusuf received no visits from the newly formed
Detachment 88, no special prison perks. The first two years of his
internment were spent in solitary confinement in a darkened room. After
Yusuf's release last year, Huda got him a job at a barbecued-duck
restaurant. But he worries about this man with the tight-set jaw and alert
eyes. Yusuf shows no repentance for his past life. He recently named his new
daughter Armalita, after a favored assault rifle. One evening, after
finishing his night shift, Yusuf sits back to read a book on jihad in the
southern Philippines, pointing out diagrams of his favorite weapons. "I
would like to go fight again," he says, the only time he looks a female
American journalist squarely in the eye. "That is my passion." Detachment
88's work is never done. — with reporting by Jason Tedjasukmana / Jakarta

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