Child Brides Escape Marriage, but Not Lashes
Alissa J. Rubin/The New York Times
Sakhina, 15, was sold into marriage to pay off her father's debts when she was 
12 or 13. She is one of four fugitive child brides at a shelter in a secret 
Kabul location. 

Published: May 30, 2010
KABUL, Afghanistan - The two Afghan girls had every reason to expect the law 
would be on their side when a policeman at a checkpoint stopped the bus they 
were in. Disguised in boys' clothes, the girls, ages 13 and 14, had been 
fleeing for two days along rutted roads and over mountain passes to escape 
their illegal, forced marriages to much older men, and now they had made it to 
relatively liberal Herat Province. 

Alissa J. Rubin/The New York Times
Sumbol, 17, a Pashtun girl, said she was kidnapped and taken to Jalalabad, then 
given a choice: marry her tormentor, or become a suicide bomber. 

Enlarge This Image
Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission
A video image showed one of two girls being flogged by a local mullah in 
January in Gardan-i-Top. The two girls were punished for running away from 
forced marriages to older men. 

Instead, the police officer spotted them as girls, ignored their pleas and 
promptly sent them back to their remote village in Ghor Province. There they 
were publicly and viciously flogged for daring to run away from their husbands. 

Their tormentors, who videotaped the abuse, were not the Taliban, but local 
mullahs and the former warlord, now a pro-government figure who largely rules 
the district where the girls live. 

Neither girl flinched visibly at the beatings, and afterward both walked away 
with their heads unbowed. Sympathizers of the victims smuggled out two video 
recordings of the floggings to the Afghanistan Independent Human Rights 
Commission, which released them on Saturday after unsuccessfully lobbying for 
government action. 

The ordeal of Afghanistan's child brides illustrates an uncomfortable truth. 
What in most countries would be considered a criminal offense is in many parts 
of Afghanistan a cultural norm, one which the government has been either unable 
or unwilling to challenge effectively. 

According to a Unicef study, from 2000 to 2008, the brides in 43 percent of 
Afghan marriages were under 18. Although the Afghan Constitution forbids the 
marriage of girls under the age of 16, tribal customs often condone marriage 
once puberty is reached, or even earlier. 

Flogging is also illegal. 

The case of Khadija Rasoul, 13, and Basgol Sakhi, 14, from the village of 
Gardan-i-Top, in the Dulina district of Ghor Province, central Afghanistan, was 
notable for the failure of the authorities to do anything to protect the girls, 
despite opportunities to do so. 

Forced into a so-called marriage exchange, where each girl was given to an 
elderly man in the other's family, Khadija and Basgol later complained that 
their husbands beat them when they tried to resist consummating the unions. 
Dressed as boys, they escaped and got as far as western Herat Province, where 
their bus was stopped at a checkpoint and they were arrested. 

Although Herat has shelters for battered and runaway women and girls, the 
police instead contacted the former warlord, Fazil Ahad Khan, whom Human Rights 
Commission workers describe as the self-appointed commander and morals enforcer 
in his district in Ghor Province, and returned the girls to his custody. 

After a kangaroo trial by Mr. Khan and local religious leaders, according to 
the commission's report on the episode, the girls were sentenced to 40 lashes 
each and flogged on Jan. 12. 

In the video, the mullah, under Mr. Khan's approving eye, administers the 
punishment with a leather strap, which he appears to wield with as much force 
as possible, striking each girl in turn on her legs and buttocks with a loud 
crack each time. Their heavy red winter chadors are pulled over their heads so 
only their skirts protect them from the blows. 

The spectators are mostly armed men wearing camouflage uniforms, and at least 
three of them openly videotape the floggings. No women are present. 

The mullah, whose name is not known, strikes the girls so hard that at one 
point he appears to have hurt his wrist and hands the strap to another man. 

"Hold still," the mullah admonishes the victims, who stand straight throughout. 
One of them can be seen in tears when her face is briefly exposed to view, but 
they remain silent. 

When the second girl is flogged, an elderly man fills in for the mullah, but 
his blows appear less forceful and the mullah soon takes the strap back. 

The spectators count the lashes out loud but several times seem to lose count 
and have to start over, or possibly they cannot count very high. 

"Good job, mullah sir," one of the men says as Mr. Khan leads them in prayer 

"I was shocked when I watched the video," said Mohammed Munir Khashi, an 
investigator with the commission. "I thought in the 21st century such a 
criminal incident could not happen in our country. It's inhuman, anti-Islam and 

Fawzia Kofi, a prominent female member of Parliament, said the case may be 
shocking but is far from the only one. "I'm sure there are worse cases we don't 
even know about," she said. "Early marriage and forced marriage are the two 
most common forms of violent behavior against women and girls." 

The Human Rights Commission took the videotapes and the results of its 
investigation to the governor of Ghor Province, Sayed Iqbal Munib, who formed a 
commission to investigate it but took no action, saying the district was too 
insecure to send police there. A coalition of civic groups in the province 
called for his dismissal over the matter. 

Nor has Afghanistan's Interior Ministry replied to demands from the commission 
to take action in the case, according to the commission's chairwoman, Sima 
Samar. A spokesman for the ministry did not respond to requests for comment. 

Forced marriage of Afghan girls is not limited to remote rural areas. In Herat 
city, a Unicef-financed women's shelter run by an Afghan group, the Voice of 
Women Organization, shelters as many as 60 girls who have fled child marriages. 

A group called Women for Afghan Women runs shelters in the capital, Kabul, as 
well as in nearby Kapisa Province and in the city of Mazar-i-Sharif, all 
relatively liberal areas as Afghanistan goes, which have taken in 108 escaped 
child brides just since January, according to Executive Director Manizha 

Poverty is the motivation for many child marriages, either because a wealthy 
husband pays a large bride-price, or just because the father of the bride then 
has one less child to support. "Most of the time they are sold," Ms. Naderi 
said. "And most of the time it's a case where the husband is much, much older." 

She said it was also common practice among police officers who apprehend 
runaway child brides to return them to their families. "Most police don't 
understand what's in the law, or they're just against it," she said. 

On Saturday, at the Women for Afghan Women shelter, at a secret location in 
Kabul, there were four fugitive child brides. All had been beaten, and most 
wept as they recounted their experiences. 

Sakhina, a 15-year-old Hazara girl from Bamian, was sold into marriage to pay 
off her father's debts when she was 12 or 13. 

Her husband's family used her as a domestic servant. "Every time they could, 
they found an excuse to beat me," she said. "My brother-in-law, my 
sister-in-law, my husband, all of them beat me." 

Sumbol, 17, a Pashtun girl, said she was kidnapped and taken to Jalalabad, then 
given a choice: marry her tormentor, or become a suicide bomber. "He said, 'If 
you don't marry me I will put a bomb on your body and send you to the police 
station,' " Sumbol said. 

Roshana, a Tajik who is now 18, does not even know why her family gave her in 
marriage to an older man in Parwan when she was 14. The beatings were bad 
enough, but finally, she said, her husband tried to feed her rat poison. 

In some ways, the two girls from Ghor were among the luckier child brides. 
After the floggings, the mullah declared them divorced and returned them to 
their own families. 

Two years earlier, in nearby Murhab district, two girls who had been sold into 
marriage to the same family fled after being abused, according to a report by 
the Human Rights Commission. But they lost their way, were captured and 
forcibly returned. Their fathers - one the village mullah - took them up the 
mountain and killed them. 

A version of this article appeared in print on May 31, 2010, on page A4 of the 
New York edition.

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