sesuatu yang menggerakkan perekonomian pada segala jaman sejak jaman dinasti 
tua fir'aun, alexander agung hingga jaman sekarang..

:D

On Jun 14, 2010, at 11:22 AM, Ari Condro wrote:

> pampasan perang.
> 
> sesuatu yg menggerakkan perokonomian arab jaman keemasan islam.
> 
> On Mon, Jun 14, 2010 at 4:21 PM, Yudi Yuliyadi <y...@geoindo.com> wrote:
> 
> >
> >
> > Coba baca di sini. Sempat2nya pejabat Pentagon dan Ahli Geologi AS
> > mengeksplorasi kekayaan alam Afghanistan di sana:
> > http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/37677987/
> > Vast mineral deposits found in Afghanistan
> > Nearly $1 trillion in untapped resources could fundamentally alter economy
> > Tyler Hicks / The New York Times
> >
> > By James Risen
> > updated 10:22 p.m. ET June 13, 2010
> >
> > WASHINGTON - The United States has discovered nearly $1 trillion in
> > untapped mineral deposits in Afghanistan, far beyond any previously known
> > reserves and enough to fundamentally alter the Afghan economy and perhaps
> > the Afghan war itself, according to senior American government officials.
> >
> > The previously unknown deposits — including huge veins of iron, copper,
> > cobalt, gold and critical industrial metals like lithium — are so big and
> > include so many minerals that are essential to modern industry that
> > Afghanistan could eventually be transformed into one of the most important
> > mining centers in the world, the United States officials believe.
> >
> > An internal Pentagon memo, for example, states that Afghanistan could
> > become the “Saudi Arabia of lithium,” a key raw material in the manufacture
> > of batteries for laptops and Blackberries.
> > Story continues below ↓advertisement | your ad here
> > Click Here!
> >
> > The vast scale of Afghanistan’s mineral wealth was discovered by a small
> > team of Pentagon officials and American geologists. The Afghan government
> > and President Hamid Karzai were recently briefed, American officials said.
> >
> > 'Stunning potential'
> > While it could take many years to develop a mining industry, the potential
> > is so great that officials and executives in the industry believe it could
> > attract heavy investment even before mines are profitable, providing the
> > possibility of jobs that could distract from generations of war.
> >
> > “There is stunning potential here,” Gen. David H. Petraeus, commander of
> > the United States Central Command, said in an interview on Saturday. “There
> > are a lot of ifs, of course, but I think potentially it is hugely
> > significant.”
> >
> > The value of the newly discovered mineral deposits dwarfs the size of
> > Afghanistan’s existing war-bedraggled economy, which is based largely on
> > opium production and narcotics trafficking as well as aid from the United
> > States and other industrialized countries. Afghanistan’s gross domestic
> > product is only about $12 billion.
> >
> > “This will become the backbone of the Afghan economy,” said Jalil Jumriany,
> > an adviser to the Afghan minister of mines.
> >
> > American and Afghan officials agreed to discuss the mineral discoveries at
> > a difficult moment in the war in Afghanistan. The American-led offensive in
> > Marja in southern Afghanistan has achieved only limited gains. Meanwhile,
> > charges of corruption and favoritism continue to plague the Karzai
> > government, and Mr. Karzai seems increasingly embittered toward the White
> > House.
> >
> > So the Obama administration is hungry for some positive news to come out of
> > Afghanistan. Yet the American officials also recognize that the mineral
> > discoveries will almost certainly have a double-edged impact.
> >
> > Corruption
> > Instead of bringing peace, the newfound mineral wealth could lead the
> > Taliban to battle even more fiercely to regain control of the country.
> >
> > The corruption that is already rampant in the Karzai government could also
> > be amplified by the new wealth, particularly if a handful of well-connected
> > oligarchs, some with personal ties to the president, gain control of the
> > resources. Just last year, Afghanistan’s minister of mines was accused by
> > American officials of accepting a $30 million bribe to award China the
> > rights to develop its copper mine. The minister has since been replaced.
> >
> > Endless fights could erupt between the central government in Kabul and
> > provincial and tribal leaders in mineral-rich districts. Afghanistan has a
> > national mining law, written with the help of advisers from the World Bank,
> > but it has never faced a serious challenge.
> >
> > “No one has tested that law; no one knows how it will stand up in a fight
> > between the central government and the provinces,” observed Paul A.
> > Brinkley, undersecretary of defense and leader of the Pentagon team that
> > discovered the deposits.
> >
> > At the same time, American officials fear resource-hungry China will try to
> > dominate the development of Afghanistan’s mineral wealth, which could upset
> > the United States, given its heavy investment in the region. After winning
> > the bid for its Aynak copper mine in Logar Province, China clearly wants
> > more, American officials said.
> >
> > Another complication is that because Afghanistan has never had much heavy
> > industry before, it has little or no history of environmental protection
> > either. “The big question is, can this be developed in a responsible way, in
> > a way that is environmentally and socially responsible?” Mr. Brinkley said.
> > “No one knows how this will work.”
> >
> > With virtually no mining industry or infrastructure in place today, it will
> > take decades for Afghanistan to exploit its mineral wealth fully. “This is a
> > country that has no mining culture,” said Jack Medlin, a geologist in the
> > United States Geological Survey’s international affairs program. “They’ve
> > had some small artisanal mines, but now there could be some very, very large
> > mines that will require more than just a gold pan.”
> >
> > The mineral deposits are scattered throughout the country, including in the
> > southern and eastern regions along the border with Pakistan that have had
> > some of the most intense combat in the American-led war against the Taliban
> > insurgency.
> >
> > ===
> >
> > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
> >
> > 
> >
> 
> -- 
> salam,
> Ari
> 
> [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
> 
> 



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