Jan Kiszka wrote:
Philippe Gerum wrote:

Jan Kiszka wrote:

Hi Philippe,

I think this one is for you: ;)

Sebastian got almost mad with his CAN driver while tracing a strange
scheduling behaviour during shadow thread deletion for several days(!) -
and I was right on the way to follow him yesterday evening. Attached is
a simplified demonstration of the effect, consisting of a RTDM driver
and both a kernel and user space application to trigger it.


I've spotted the issue in nucleus/shadow.c. Basically, the root thread
priority boost was leaking to a non-shadow thread due to a missing
priority reset in the lostage APC handler, whilst a shadow was in the
process of relaxing. Really funky bug, thanks! :o> Fixed in the repo
hopefully for good. The scheduling sequence is now correct with your
demo app on my box.



Yep, looks good here as well. Great and quick work! Just don't expect
that someone can follow your explanations easily. :)


Well, sorry. Here is a more useful explanation :

The demo thread in your code calls sleep(1) before exiting, which causes the underlying shadow thread to relax. The same would happen without sleeping, since a terminating thread is silently relaxed by the nucleus in any case as needed.

When relaxing the current thread, xnshadow_relax() first boosts the priority of the root thread (i.e. the placeholder for Linux in the Xenomai scheduler) right before suspending itself. Before that, a wake up request has been scheduled (using an APC), so that lostage_handler will be called, which will in turn invoke wake_up_process() for the relaxing thread. This is needed because shadows running in primary mode are seen as suspended in the Linux sense in TASK_INTERRUPTIBLE state. The reason for this is that both Xenomai and Linux schedulers must have a mutually exclusive control over a shadow, they should not be allowed to both fiddle concurrently with a single thread context; conversely, relaxed thread operating in secondary mode are seen as suspended on the XNRELAX condition by the nucleus.

IOW, what we want to do here is some kind of transition from the Xenomai to the Linux scheduler for the relaxing shadow thread. This way, we make sure that the Linux scheduler will get back in control for the awaken shadow thread, which ends up running in secondary mode once it has been resumed by wake_up_process().

Problem is that the unless we actually reset the root thread priority to the lowest one in lostage_handler in order to revert the priority boost done in xnshadow_relax, there is a short window of time during which a normal Linux task that has been preempted by the APC request that runs lostage_handler could run and wreck the scheduling sequence (e.g. your main() context). The fix is about downgrading the root thread priority and waking the relaxed shadow up in the same move, so that the priority scheme is kept intact.

Now the question is: why does the root thread priority need to be upgraded while relaxing a shadow? The answer is simple: when relaxing a shadow, you are not expected to change tasks in a Xenomai or Linux sense, you are only changing the Xenomai exec mode for a shadow, which means that we must ensure that giving control back to the Linux kernel just for the purpose of changing the current exec mode won't cause the current priority level of the relaxing thread to be lost and spuriously downgraded to the lowest one of the system. So we just boost it to be equal to the one of the relaxing thread; this way, the Linux kernel code undergoes a Xenomai RT priority boost so that Linux cannot be preempted by lower priority Xenomai threads. When a shadow thread running in secondary mode is switched in, the root thread priority always inherits the Xenomai priority level for that thread; conversely, when a non-Xenomai/regular Linux task is scheduled in, the root thread priority is downgraded to the lowest Xenomai priority.

If one thinks a bit ahead now, having this scheme in place, we should be able to benefit from every improvement in the vanilla Linux kernel granularity toward real-time guarantees. Because we don't break the priority scheme moving in and out of the Linux domain, a Xenomai scheduling decision remains consistent with the Linux priority scheme, which is a necessary condition for providing a high integration level between Xeno and the vanilla kernel.

I think this issue has some similarity with the one I once stumbled over
regarding non-RT signalling to Linux. I'm not going to repeat my general
concerns regarding the priority boosting of the root thread now... ;)


Each time you spot a bug like this, your stack of concerns should lose at least one element, isn'it? :o>

Until Linux is really able to provide a fine-grained, non-disruptive and not easily disrupted (e.g. locking semantics in drivers), and low-overhead core implementation for RT support, Xeno will need to provide its own primary scheduler for latency-critical duties, the seamless mode migration just described being there to guarantee a seamless integration.

The day Linux does provide this support, we will be able to focus on the abtract RTOS core, RT interface skins, traditional RTOS emulators, and drivers, instead of compensating for the current lack of determinism, rebasing Xeno's scheduling support over native tasks and the native Linux scheduler. Oh, yeah... _That_ would be a great day. But for now, we still need two cooperating schedulers for some time ahead, I think. Sigh...

Jan


--

Philippe.

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