UNTUK MENGHINDARI debat kusir, aku cut & paste info mengenai 'Chinese
migration' (Chinese diaspora) yg sudah mulai ribuan taon lalu. Ini
termasuk masuknya suku2 bangsa China tertentu ke Philipines, Borneo,
Sumatra dan Java.

Bagi yg ingin tau sejarah diaspora bangsa China sislakan baca sinopsis
di bawah ini. Kalo misih pengin lebih banyak klik google dg judul yg
sama.

Gabriela Rantau

Chronology of historical emigration
    * 210 BCE, Qin Shi Huang <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qin_Shi_Huang>
dispatched Xu Fu <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xu_Fu>  to sail overseas
in search of elixirs of immortality, accompanied by 3,000 virgin boys
and girls. History is entangled in legend; Xu Fu may have settled in
Japan <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japan> .
    * 661 CE Tang dynasty <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tang_dynasty> ,
Zheng Guo Xi of Nan An, Fujian <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fujian> 
was buried at a Philippine <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippine> 
island.[1] <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_emigration#cite_note-0>
    * 7-8th century, the Arabs <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabs> 
recorded large numbers of Tang traders residing at the mouth of the
Tigris <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tigris>  and Euphrates
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euphrates>  rivers, and they had families
there.
    * 10th century, Arab trader Masuoti recorded in his Golden Ley, in
the year 943, he sailed passed Srivijaya
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Srivijaya>  and saw many Chinese people
farming there especially at Palembang
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palembang> . These people migrated to
Nanyang <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanyang_%28geographical_region%29>
to evade chaos caused by war in Tang Dynasty
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tang_Dynasty>  China.


[edit
<http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chinese_emigration&action=edi\
t&section=2> ] 10-15th century
    * Java <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Java> : Zheng He's
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zheng_He>  compatriot Ma Huan
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ma_Huan>  recorded in his book (Chinese:
zh:瀛涯胜览
<http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E7%80%9B%E6%B6%AF%E8%83%9C%E8%A7%88> )
that large numbers of Chinese lived in the Majapahit Empire
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Majapahit_Empire>  on Java, especially in
Surabaya <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surabaya>  (Chinese: 泗水).
The place where the Chinese lived was called New Village (Chinese:
新æ`), with many originally from Canton
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guangzhou> , Zhangzhou
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zhangzhou>  and Quanzhou
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quanzhou> .
    * Cambodia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cambodia> : Envoy of Yuan
dynasty <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuan_dynasty> , Zhou Daguan
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zhou_Daguan>  (Chinese: å`¨è¾¾è§‚)
recorded in his The Customs of Chenla; Chinese:
真腊风土记), that there were many Chinese, especially
sailors, who lived there, with many intermarrying with local women.
    * Siam <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thailand> : According to the
clan chart of family name Lim, Gan, Ng, Khaw, Cheah, many Chinese
traders lived there. Some of the Siamese envoys sent to China were these
people.
    * Borneo <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borneo> : Many Chinese lived
there as recorded by Zheng He.
    * 1405 Ming dynasty <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ming_dynasty> , Tan
Sheng Shou
<http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tan_Sheng_Shou&action=edit&re\
dlink=1> , the Battalion Commander Yang Xin
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yang_Xin>  and others were sent to Java
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Java> 's Old Port (Palembang
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palembang> ; Chinese: 旧港) to bring
the absconder Liang Dao Ming
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liang_Dao_Ming>  (Chinese:
梁é"明) and others to negotiate pacification. He took his
family and fled to live in this place, where he remained for many years.
Thousands of military personnel and civilians from Guangdong
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guangdong>  and Fujian
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fujian>  followed him there and chose Dao
Ming as their leader.
    * 1459 Ming emperor sent Hang Li Po
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hang_Li_Po>  to Malacca
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malacca>  along with 500 other female
attendants, many attendants later married officials serving Mansur Shah
as Li Po married the sultan after she accepted conversion to Islam
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam> .


[edit
<http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chinese_emigration&action=edi\
t&section=3> ] 20th century: modern emigration
Through most of China's history
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_China> , strict controls
prevented large numbers of people from leaving the country. In modern
times, however, periodically some have been allowed to leave for various
reasons. For example, in the early 1960s, about 100,000 people were
allowed to enter Hong Kong <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hong_Kong> . In
the late 1970s, vigilance against illegal migration to Hong Kong was
again relaxed somewhat. Perhaps as many as 200,000 reached Hong Kong in
1979, but in 1980 authorities on both sides resumed concerted efforts to
reduce the flow.

More liberalized emigration policies enacted in the 1980s facilitated
the legal departure of increasing numbers of Chinese who joined their
overseas Chinese relatives and friends. The Four Modernizations
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_Modernizations>  program, which
required access of Chinese students and scholars, particularly
scientists, to foreign education and research institutions, brought
about increased contact with the outside world, particularly the
industrialized nations
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrialized_nations> . Thus, as China
moved toward the twenty-first century, the diverse resources and immense
population that it had committed to a comprehensive process of
modernization <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modernization>  became ever
more important.

In 1983, emigration restrictions were eased as a result in part of the
economic open-door policy
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open-door_policy> . In 1984, more than
11,500 business visas <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visa_%28document%29>
were issued to Chinese citizens, and in 1985, approximately 15,000
Chinese scholars and students were in the United States
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States>  alone. Any student who had
the economic resources, from whatever source, could apply for permission
to study abroad. United States consular offices issued more than 12,500
immigrant visas in 1984, and there were 60,000 Chinese with approved
visa petitions in the immigration queue.

Export of labor to foreign countries also increased. The Soviet Union
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_Union> , Iraq
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iraq> , and the Federal Republic of
Germany <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_Republic_of_Germany> 
requested 500,000 workers, and as of 1986, China sent 50,000. The
signing of the United States-China Consular Convention in 1983
demonstrated the commitment to more liberal emigration policies. The two
sides agreed to permit travel for the purpose of family reunification
and to facilitate travel for individuals who claim both Chinese and
United States citizenship. Emigrating from China remained a complicated
and lengthy process, however, mainly because many countries were
unwilling or unable to accept the large numbers of people who wished to
emigrate. Other difficulties included bureaucratic delays and in some
cases a reluctance on the part of Chinese authorities to issue passports
and exit permits to individuals making notable contributions to the
modernization effort.

The only significant immigration to China has been by the overseas
Chinese <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Overseas_Chinese> , who in the
years since 1949 have been offered various enticements to return to
their homeland <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homeland> . Several million
may have done so since 1949. The largest influx came in 1978-79, when
about 160,000 to 250,000 ethnic Chinese refugees
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Refugee>  fled Vietnam
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnam>  for southern China, as relations
between the two countries worsened. Many of these refugees were
reportedly settled in state farms on Hainan Island
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hainan_Island>  in the South China Sea
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_China_Sea> .


--- In zamanku@yahoogroups.com, Hati Nurani <[EMAIL PROTECTED]>
wrote:
>
> Baca dengan hati Jernih...........
> Jangan utamakan untuk "menyangkal" yang anda dahulukan, tapi fahami,
resapi dan renungkan setiap tulisan, agar anda bisa mendapatkan manfaat.
>
> Kami menggunakan istilah "MENGUNGSI", anda tahu arti Mengungsi ??
sangat berbeda dengan PINDAH atau DATANG.
>
> Dan yang saya maksudkan MENGUNSI adalah ke SELURUH DUNIA, termasuk
Indonesia.
>
> Pengunsian Cina ke seluruh Dunia termasuk lari ke AMERIKA dan EROPA
disebabkan oleh Komunis di CINA..........
>
> Camkan, resapi, dan jangan MENDAHULUKAN PENYANGKALAN yang akan
menyebabkan anda DITERTAWAKAN, dan itu adalah Cermin dari KEKOTORAN HATI
.........................
>
> Salam,
>
>
>
> --- On Sun, 9/7/08, Jose Patrick [EMAIL PROTECTED] wrote:
>
> From: Jose Patrick [EMAIL PROTECTED]
> Subject: [zamanku] Re: Islam Sudah Masuk China Lebih Dulu Daripada
Indonesia
> To: zamanku@yahoogroups.com
> Date: Sunday, September 7, 2008, 2:50 AM
>
>
>
>
>
>
> Menarik nih.....boleh disampaikan FAKTAnya di forum ini......setahu
> saya orang china sudah datang ke indonesia sejak ratusan tahun
> lalu...bukan sejak komunis di abad 20.....
>
> --- In [EMAIL PROTECTED] .com, Hati Nurani <hati_nurani_ 2008@
> wrote:
> >
> > Bening :
> >
> > tapi fakta menunjukkan, bahwa teror terbesar di Cina sehingga
> menyebabkan jutaan China mengungsi ke seluruh dunia termasuk
> Indonesia, karena Komunis, bukan karena ISLAM.
> >
> > Dan biasanya "IBLIS" selalu dusta dan menutupi kebenaran dengan
> cerita-cerita Bohong.
> >
> > Salam,
> >
> > > Islam Sudah Masuk China Lebih Dulu Daripada Indonesia
> > >
> > > Sebelum Islam masuk ke Indonesia, di China sudah banyak terrorist2
> > > Islam yang diperangi kerajaan2 di China.
> > >
> > > Bahkan, kerajaan2 China dimasa lalu membuka kesempatan umat
> Islamnya
> > > untuk masuk ke China berpartisipasi untuk membangun negaranya.
> > Namun
> > > sayangnya kesempatan itu hanya diisi dengan terror2 bukan diisi
> > dengan
> > > karya2 yang bisa jadi kenangan orang2 China disana.
> >
> >
> > --- On Fri, 9/5/08, tawangalun <tawangalun@ ...> wrote:
> >
> > From: tawangalun <tawangalun@ ...>
> > Subject: [zamanku] Re: Islam Sudah Masuk China Lebih Dulu Daripada
> Indonesia
> > To: [EMAIL PROTECTED] .com
> > Date: Friday, September 5, 2008, 10:03 AM
> >
> >
> >
> >
> >
> >
> > Tapi kan lumayan Islam punya laksamana Cheng Ho,lalu opo maksud
> > sutradara Film kok ngajak Yusril jadi pemeran Cheng Ho? apa untuk
> > meyakinkan genduk yang pasti nuduh dikira Chengho bukan Islam.
> > Terus bojone Fatahilah itu putri dari rojo China,dia nyusul ke
> > Cirebon dan sekarang dimakamnya banyak peninggalan piring2 porcelain
> > dari jaman Ming,ben Genduk tidak mengelak bahwa dulu China itu
> banyak
> > yang dapet santri.R.Patah itu jare ada darah China.
> >
> > Shalom,
> > Tawangalun.
> >
> > - In [EMAIL PROTECTED] .com, "Hafsah Salim" <muskitawati@ ...>
> wrote:
> > >
> > > Islam Sudah Masuk China Lebih Dulu Daripada Indonesia
> > >
> > > Sebelum Islam masuk ke Indonesia, di China sudah banyak terrorist2
> > > Islam yang diperangi kerajaan2 di China.
> > >
> > > Bahkan, kerajaan2 China dimasa lalu membuka kesempatan umat
> Islamnya
> > > untuk masuk ke China berpartisipasi untuk membangun negaranya.
> > Namun
> > > sayangnya kesempatan itu hanya diisi dengan terror2 bukan diisi
> > dengan
> > > karya2 yang bisa jadi kenangan orang2 China disana.
> > >
> > > Bahkan Olympic Games yang baru sukses dilaksanakan di Bejing juga
> > > dikotori oleh usaha2 terror yang berhasil ditembak mati oleh
> satuan2
> > > China.
> > >
> > > Islam bukan agama baru di China, masuknya Islam ke China sudah
> jauh
> > > lebih tua daripada Islam di Indonesia. Namun pasaran agama Islam
> di
> > > China memang tidak punya harapan masa depan yang baik sehubungan
> > > banyaknya agama yang masuk ke China dari zaman dulu kala. Setiap
> > > agama yang masuk ke China selalu membawa budaya tinggi seperti
> dari
> > > Yunani yang di China dikenal sebagai kerajaan Hsia, dari persia
> yang
> > > dikenal sebagai agama Zoroaster, dari India agama Hindu dan
> Buddha,
> > > dan masih banyak sekali macamnya agama yang masuk ke China dan
> > > bersaing berebut umat. Namun memang agama Islam kalah segalanya
> > > sehingga tak mampu mengambil kesempatan emas dizaman dulu untuk
> > > berpengaruh di kawasan Asia ini.
> > >
> > > Ny. Muslim binti Muskitawati.
> > >
> >
>

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