Penelitian begini, sekarang ini, lazimnya dilakukan oleh orang-orang kafir..
 
Orang Islam lebih senang membuang-buang uangnya untuk naik haji,  sembari 
melempar setan yang tidak ada di padang pasir sono dan muter-muter kayak orang 
sedeng mengelilingi Kaabah di Makkah.

Atau mereka buang waktu untuk tunggng tunggik lima kali sehair kayak onta 
dientoinmonyet bonobo atau...??

Saling berbunuhan dan bikin onar.
 
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    Web address:
     http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/10/
     081030200636.htm     
Beyond Recognizing Odors, Single Neuron Controls Reactions In Worm

Scents and sensibility. Beyond merely distinguishing odors from one another, 
researchers have found that a worm's AWC neuron (highlighted above) can also 
alter the animal's response to them. (Credit: Image courtesy of Rockefeller 
University)

ScienceDaily (Nov. 2, 2008) — Babies will smile when they catch the scent of 
vanilla, but a whiff of rotting meat will send them into fits. From people to 
mice and flies to worms, animals of all kinds are born with likes and dislikes 
thanks to the evolutionary wisdom collected in their genes. But new research 
shows that some preferences are still surprisingly flexible at even the most 
basic level — that of the sensory neuron itself — and that our nervous system 
may be even more adaptable than we thought.

“When you’re out hiking, you’ll notice that everything tastes really delicious. 
That’s one of the best parts about hiking, actually, is how delicious a peanut 
butter and raisin sandwich can be,” says Cori Bargmann, Torsten N. Wiesel 
Professor and head of the Laboratory of Neural Circuits and Behavior at The 
Rockefeller University. “Conversely, when you are ill, everything tastes bad; 
everything makes you nauseous. The question is: What is changing to allow the 
same individual to respond to the same stimulus in different ways?”

In research published recently in Neuron, Bargmann and her colleagues pursued 
the question in a simpler creature and context: In Caenorhabditis elegans — a 
one-millimeter-long worm known as “the bloodhound of the invertebrates” for its 
olfactory acumen — what biochemical process causes a change in odor preference? 
The worm has a relatively compact nervous system of 302 neurons. Bargmann’s lab 
focused on the only one that is sensitive to the odor butanone, a mild, 
slightly oily smell that attracts normal worms when they first encounter it. 
The experiments showed that if worms are fed in the presence of butanone, they 
fall in love with it, twisting their way more quickly toward the odor. But if 
those same worms are starved in the presence of the smell for two hours, they 
have the opposite reaction. “They get really mad,” says Bargmann, who is also a 
Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator. “Not only will they not go to the 
odor, they
 will run away from it.”

Bargmann found a worm with a specific mutation to the gcy-28 gene that altered 
the neuron under study, known as AWC-on, causing naive worms to flee from 
butanone. By systematically examining worms with different mutations affecting 
the AWC-on neuron as well as other neurons that might impact the worm’s 
reaction to butanone, the researchers were able to confirm that a specific 
chemical signaling pathway is used by the AWC-on neuron to direct the worms’ 
movement either toward or away from the odor. These as well as other tests, 
including the use of a laser to destroy specific neurons, demonstrated that a 
single sensory neuron, responding to stimuli from both inside and outside the 
worm, could change the worm’s preferences and behaviors.

The finding defies the pure “labeled-line” theory of sensation, which holds 
that sensory neurons are specialized to follow one path to one behavior.

Although there are vast differences in the nervous systems of worms and 
mammals, Bargmann believes that her findings may also be true of olfactory 
perception in higher mammals such as humans. “If what we’re seeing in the worms 
is the ability of sensory cells to respond to internal needs, and to multitask 
profoundly, I bet the mammalian brain can do that as well,” she says.

Journal reference:

   1. Tsunozaki et al. A Behavioral Switch: cGMP and PKC Signaling in Olfactory 
Neurons Reverses Odor Preference in C. elegans. Neuron, 2008; 59 (6): 959 DOI: 
10.1016/j.neuron.2008.07.038

Adapted from materials provided by Rockefeller University.
Need to cite this story in your essay, paper, or report? Use one of the 
following formats:
APA

MLA
Rockefeller University (2008, November 2). Beyond Recognizing Odors, Single 
Neuron Controls Reactions In Worm. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 2, 2008, 
from http://www.sciencedaily.com­ /releases/2008/10/081030200636.htm


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