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Key Mechanism That Regulates Development Of Stem Cells Into Neurons Identified
Researchers are now expanding their work to include studies of differentiation
of human embryonic stem cells into neural stem cells and neurons. (Credit:
ScienceDaily (Nov. 11, 2008) — Researchers at the University of Southern
California (USC) have identified a novel mechanism in the regulation and
differentiation of neural stem cells.
Researchers found that the protein receptor Ryk has a key role in the
differentiation of neural stem cells, and demonstrated a signaling mechanism
that regulates neuronal differentiation as stem cells begin to grow into
neurons. The study will be published in the Nov. 11 issue of the journal
Developmental Cell, and is now available online.
The findings could have important implications for regenerative medicine and
cancer therapies, says Wange Lu, Ph.D., assistant professor of biochemistry and
molecular biology at the Keck School of Medicine of USC, and the principal
investigator on the study.
"Neural stem cells can potentially be used for cell-replacement therapy for
neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease, as well
as spinal cord injury," Lu says. "Knowledge gained from this study will
potentially help to generate neurons for such therapy. This knowledge can also
be used to inhibit the growth of brain cancer stem cells."
During brain development, neural stem cells respond to the surrounding
environment by either proliferation or differentiation, but the molecular
mechanisms underlying the development of neural stem cells and neurons are
unclear, Lu notes.
Ryk functions as a receptor of Wnt proteins required for cell-fate
determination, axon guidance and neurite outgrowth in organisms. Researchers at
the Eli and Edythe Broad Center for Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell
Research at USC analyzed sections of the forebrain in animal model embryos to
investigate Ryk's function in vivo.
They found that during neurogenesis, when neural stem cells start to grow into
neurons, Ryk protein is cleaved and translocates to the cell nucleus to
regulate neuronal differentiation.
This finding is extremely important for understanding the regulation of
self-renewal and differentiation of neural stem cells, Lu says. Previous
research has shown that Ryk functions as a receptor of Wnt proteins. However,
the role of Ryk in neural stem cells and the molecular mechanism of Ryk
signaling have not previously been known.
"This study will help in our efforts to produce nerve cells from embryonic stem
cells, and may lead to the development of new strategies for the repair of the
nervous system, using protein or small molecule therapeutic agents," says
Martin Pera, Ph.D., director of the Eli and Edythe Broad Center for
Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at USC.
Further research is needed to explore how Ryk regulates neuronal gene
expression, Lu says. Researchers are now expanding their research to studies of
differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into neural stem cells and
neurons. These studies are very important for regenerative medicine and drug
discovery for therapy of neurodegenerative diseases.
The study was funded by the Baxter Foundation and the American Cancer Society.
The current studies using human ES cells are being funded by a CIRM SEED grant.
1. Jungmook Lyu, Vicky Yamamoto and Wange Lu. Cleavage of Wnt Receptor Ryk
Regulates Neuronal Differentiation during Cortical Neurogenesis. Developmental
Cell, Nov. 2008
Adapted from materials provided by University of Southern California. Original
article written by Meghan Lewit.
Need to cite this story in your essay, paper, or report? Use one of the
University of Southern California (2008, November 11). Key Mechanism That
Regulates Development Of Stem Cells Into Neurons Identified. ScienceDaily.
Retrieved November 12, 2008, from http://www.sciencedaily.com
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