Boleh dibilangtiam hari, teori Darwin disempurnakan orang..

Dan tidak bisa dibantah lagi bahwa mutasi dan eviolusi itu terjadi.

Manusiai, homo sapiens sapiens juga jelas adalah hasil evolusi...
 
Tapi orang Islam dan banyak orang Nasrani yang dungu-dungu kayak anjing masih 
percaya kepada omong kosong dan kibulan di al-Mushaf dan Bible yang bilang Adam 
dan Siti Hawa (Eva) itu diciptakan oleh Tuhan yng  tdiak berbukti ada.

Dungu-dungu kabeh.




 Web address:
     http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/01/
     090126082351.htm  


Dinosaur Fossils Fit Perfectly Into The Evolutionary Tree Of Life, Study Finds
enlarge

Dr
Matthew Wills from the University of Bath used statistical methods to
assess the accuracy of dinosaur evolutionary trees. (Credit: Image
courtesy of University of Bath)
ScienceDaily (Jan. 30, 2009) — A recent study by researchers at the University 
of Bath and London’s
Natural History Museum has found that scientists’ knowledge of the
evolution of dinosaurs is remarkably complete.
Evolutionary biologists use two ways to study the evolution of
prehistoric plants and animals: firstly they use radioactive dating
techniques to put fossils in chronological order according to the age
of the rocks in which they are found (stratigraphy); secondly they
observe and classify the characteristics of fossilised remains
according to their relatedness (morphology).
Dr Matthew Wills from the University of Bath’s Department of Biology
& Biochemistry worked with Dr Paul Barrett from the Natural History
Museum and Julia Heathcote at Birkbeck College (London) to analyse
statistical data from fossils of the four major groups of dinosaur to
see how closely they matched their trees of evolutionary relatedness.
The researchers found that the fossil record for the dinosaurs
studied, ranging from gigantic sauropods to two-legged meat eaters such
as T. rex, matched very well with the evolutionary tree, meaning that
the current view of evolution of these creatures is very accurate.
Dr Matthew Wills explained: “We have two independent lines of
evidence on the history of life: the chronological order of fossils in
the rocks, and ‘trees’ of evolutionary relatedness.
“When the two tell the same story, the most likely explanation is
that both reflect the truth. When they disagree, and the order of
animals on the tree is out of whack with the order in the rocks, you
either have a dodgy tree, lots of missing fossils, or both.
“What we’ve shown in this study is that the agreement for dinosaurs
is remarkably good, meaning that we can have faith in both our
understanding of their evolution, and the relative completeness of
their fossil record.
“In other words, our knowledge of dinosaurs is very, very good.”
The researchers studied gaps in the fossil record, so-called ‘ghost
ranges’, where the evolutionary tree indicates there should be fossils
but where none have yet been found. They mapped these gaps onto the
evolutionary tree and calculated statistical probabilities to find the
closeness of the match.
Dr Wills said: “Gaps in the fossil record can occur for a number of
reasons. Only a tiny minority of animals are preserved as fossils
because exceptional geological conditions are needed. Other fossils may
be difficult to classify because they are incomplete; others just
haven’t been found yet.
“Pinning down an accurate date for some fossils can also prove
difficult. For example, the oldest fossil may be so incomplete that it
becomes uncertain as to which group it belongs. This is particularly
true with fragments of bones. Our study made allowances for this
uncertainty.
“We are excited that our data show an almost perfect agreement
between the evolutionary tree and the ages of fossils in the rocks.
This is because it confirms that the fossil record offers an extremely
accurate account of how these amazing animals evolved over time and
gives clues as to how mammals and birds evolved from them.”
The study, published in the peer-reviewed journal Sytematic Biology,
was part of a project funded by the Biotechnology & Biological
Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) that aimed to combine different forms
of evolutionary evidence to produce more accurate evolutionary trees.
________________________________
 
Journal reference:
        1. Wills et al. The Modified Gap Excess Ratio (GER*) and the 
Stratigraphic Congruence of Dinosaur Phylogenies. Systematic Biology, 2008; 57 
(6): 891 DOI: 10.1080/10635150802570809
Adapted from materials provided by University of Bath.
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University of Bath (2009, January 30). Dinosaur Fossils Fit Perfectly Into The 
Evolutionary Tree Of Life, Study Finds. ScienceDaily. Retrieved February 1, 
2009, from http://www.sciencedaily.com­/releases/2009/01/090126082351.htm 
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