Teori Darwin telah dibuktikan benar.

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Evolusi telahdibuktikan memanag terjadi.

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melengkapi teori Darwin itu...

Nggak heran bahwa aklhirnya gereja katolik Roma juga mengakui kebenaran teori 


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Conserved Gene Expression Reveals Our 'Inner Fish'

New research shows that the expression of certain specialized genes in 
vertebrates as different as pufferfish and humans has remained remarkably 
conserved over evolution. (Credit: iStockphoto/Ernst Daniel Scheffler)

ScienceDaily (Apr. 16, 2009) — A study of gene expression in chickens, frogs, 
pufferfish, mice and people has revealed surprising similarities in several key 
tissues. Researchers have shown that expression in tissues with a limited 
number of specialized cell types is strongly conserved, even between the 
mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrates.

Timothy Hughes from the University of Toronto, Canada, worked with a team of 
researchers to investigate evolutionary alterations in gene regulation in the 
five different vertebrates. They found that although the specialized DNA 
sequences that regulate the expression of the genes seem to have changed beyond 
recognition over the hundreds of millions of years since the clades parted 
evolutionary company, the actual patterns of gene expression remain closely 

According to Hughes, "There are clearly strong evolutionary constraints on 
tissue-specific gene expression. Many genes show conserved human/fish 
expression despite having almost no nonexonic conserved primary sequence."

The authors studied 3074 genes that were present as a single unambiguous copy 
in each of the five genomes. The similar expression profiles they uncovered 
suggest the existence of a basic ancestral pattern of expression in each 
tissue, the so-called 'inner fish'.

The strongest similarities were seen in brain tissue. Hughes said, "This 
relatively low divergence of gene expression in brain supports the hypothesis 
that neurons participate in more functional interactions than cells in other 
tissues – imposing constraints on the degree of alteration that can be 
tolerated". Genes expressed in tissues subject to greater environmental 
influence (such as intestine, stomach and spleen) may be more likely to take on 
new roles and diverge in expression as a means of adaptation.

Although this study only investigated vertebrates, these expression profiles 
may go much further back into our past. The authors conclude, "It is likely 
that the conservation of gene expression extends beyond the base of 
vertebrates, coexpression of neuronal genes, for example, has been observed as 
far as nematodes."

Journal reference:

   1. Esther T Chan, Gerald T Quon, Gordon Chua, Tomas Babak, Miles Trochesset, 
Ralph A Zirngibl, Jane Aubin, Michael Ratcliffe, Andrew Wilde, Michael Brudno, 
Quaid D Morris and Timothy R Hughes. Conservation of core gene expression in 
vertebrate tissues. Journal of Biology, 2009; DOI: 10.1186/jbiol130

Adapted from materials provided by Journal of Biology, via EurekAlert!, a 
service of AAAS.
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Journal of Biology (2009, April 16). Conserved Gene Expression Reveals Our 
'Inner Fish'. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 17, 2009, from 
http://www.sciencedaily.com­ /releases/2009/04/090415193249.htm

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