Teori Darwin telah dibuktikan benar.
Mutasi telah dibuktikan memang terjadi.
Evolusi telahdibuktikan memanag terjadi.
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melengkapi teori Darwin itu...
Nggak heran bahwa aklhirnya gereja katolik Roma juga mengakui kebenaran teori
Conserved Gene Expression Reveals Our 'Inner Fish'
New research shows that the expression of certain specialized genes in
vertebrates as different as pufferfish and humans has remained remarkably
conserved over evolution. (Credit: iStockphoto/Ernst Daniel Scheffler)
ScienceDaily (Apr. 16, 2009) — A study of gene expression in chickens, frogs,
pufferfish, mice and people has revealed surprising similarities in several key
tissues. Researchers have shown that expression in tissues with a limited
number of specialized cell types is strongly conserved, even between the
mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrates.
Timothy Hughes from the University of Toronto, Canada, worked with a team of
researchers to investigate evolutionary alterations in gene regulation in the
five different vertebrates. They found that although the specialized DNA
sequences that regulate the expression of the genes seem to have changed beyond
recognition over the hundreds of millions of years since the clades parted
evolutionary company, the actual patterns of gene expression remain closely
According to Hughes, "There are clearly strong evolutionary constraints on
tissue-specific gene expression. Many genes show conserved human/fish
expression despite having almost no nonexonic conserved primary sequence."
The authors studied 3074 genes that were present as a single unambiguous copy
in each of the five genomes. The similar expression profiles they uncovered
suggest the existence of a basic ancestral pattern of expression in each
tissue, the so-called 'inner fish'.
The strongest similarities were seen in brain tissue. Hughes said, "This
relatively low divergence of gene expression in brain supports the hypothesis
that neurons participate in more functional interactions than cells in other
tissues – imposing constraints on the degree of alteration that can be
tolerated". Genes expressed in tissues subject to greater environmental
influence (such as intestine, stomach and spleen) may be more likely to take on
new roles and diverge in expression as a means of adaptation.
Although this study only investigated vertebrates, these expression profiles
may go much further back into our past. The authors conclude, "It is likely
that the conservation of gene expression extends beyond the base of
vertebrates, coexpression of neuronal genes, for example, has been observed as
far as nematodes."
1. Esther T Chan, Gerald T Quon, Gordon Chua, Tomas Babak, Miles Trochesset,
Ralph A Zirngibl, Jane Aubin, Michael Ratcliffe, Andrew Wilde, Michael Brudno,
Quaid D Morris and Timothy R Hughes. Conservation of core gene expression in
vertebrate tissues. Journal of Biology, 2009; DOI: 10.1186/jbiol130
Adapted from materials provided by Journal of Biology, via EurekAlert!, a
service of AAAS.
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