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Neandertals Sophisticated And Fearless Hunters, New Analysis Shows

Model of the Neanderthal man. Exhibited in the Dinosaur Park Münchehagen, 
Germany. (Credit: iStockphoto/Klaus Nilkens)
ScienceDaily (May 14, 2009) — Neandertals, the 'stupid' cousins of modern 
humans were capable of
capturing the most impressive animals. This indicates that Neandertals
were anything but dim. Dutch researcher Gerrit Dusseldorp analysed
their daily forays for food to gain insights into the complex behaviour
of the Neandertal. His analysis revealed that the hunting was very
knowledge intensive.
Although it is now clear that Neandertals were hunters and not
scavengers, their exact hunting methods are still something of a
mystery. Dusseldorp investigated just how sophisticated the
Neandertals' hunting methods really were. His analysis of two
archaeological sites revealed that Neandertals in warm forested areas
preferred to hunt solitary game but that in colder, less forested areas
they preferred to hunt the more difficult to capture herding animals.
The Neandertals were not easily intimated by their game.
Rhinoceroses, bisons and even predators such as the brown bear were all
on their menu. Dusseldorp established that just as for modern humans,
the environment and the availability of food determined the choice of
prey and the hunting method adopted. If the circumstances allowed it,
Neandertals lived in large groups and even the most attractive and
difficult to catch prey were within their reach.
Coordination and communication
Although herding animals are difficult to surprise and isolate, many
such game lived on the open steppes. This large supply attracted large
groups of Neandertals. That the Neandertals were capable of hunting
down such elusive game demonstrates that they had good coordination
skills and could communicate well with each other.
Each prey has a specific cost-benefit scenario. For example, game
that are more difficult to catch yield more calories and have a more
usable, thick fleece. Dusseldorp used these data to examine the
Neandertal's preferences. He also analysed the prey of hyenas in the
same manner. Hyenas were important competitors of Neandertals as they
had a similar dietary pattern.
Dusseldorp demonstrated that Neandertals, thanks to their
intelligence, even surpassed hyenas at capturing the strongest game.
All things being considered, the Neandertals were skilled and highly
intelligent hunters. So the idea that Neandertals were brute musclemen
can be dismissed.
This study was part of NWO project "Thoughtful Hunters? The
Archaeology of Neandertal Communication and Cognition." Dusseldorp is
continuing his research with a postdoc position in Johannesburg. There
he shall focus on the modern humans that evolved in Africa.
Adapted from materials provided by Netherlands Organization for Scientific 
Research, via AlphaGalileo.
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Organization for Scientific Research (2009, May 14). Neandertals
Sophisticated And Fearless Hunters, New Analysis Shows. ScienceDaily. Retrieved 
May 15, 2009, from­/releases/2009/05/090514084115.htm 
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