"I love the United
States, with all its
faults. I consider it
my second country"

Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, presidential candidate

Profile: Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono

 By Paul Dillon in Jakarta, Indonesia

The most popular politician going into Indonesia's inaugural
presidential elections on Monday, is a staunchly pro-US military

Surprisingly he has remodelled his taciturn law-and-order image to
become a pop-tune singing man of the people.

Retired four-star general Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, 54, known
universally by his acronym SBY, has consolidated his position as
Indonesia's newest political phenomenon.

Poll results released on Friday show support for the former general
remains strong at nearly 44%.

Incumbent president Megawati Sukarnoputri is running a distant second
at just over 20% the Indonesia Survey Institute results show, with
former Indonesian Armed Forces (TNI) chief Wiranto and deputy House
speaker Amien Rais polling just under 15% and nearly 14% respectively.

What remains to be seen is whether Yudhoyono can get the 50% plus one
majority he needs to avoid a runoff election on 20 September against
the second place candidate.


"SBY, SBY, SBY, he's the only man for the job," says off-duty Jakarta
taxi driver Amir Nurdin, 47.

"They're all crooks, but I think he is not the worst. He can bring us
jobs and more money for the little people like me."

Surveys as far back as last July ranked Yudhoyono as the most
respected politician in this overwhelmingly Muslim country of 220

But his personal popularity really took off after he resigned as
security minister in March. His Democratic party received more than
eight per cent of the popular vote in April's general elections,
largely on the basis of his reputation as a "clean" candidate,
untainted by scandal.


Despite a smear campaign that includes allegations he is a CIA agent,
polls show that Yudhoyono's personal approval ratings are high across
the political spectrum. Asked who was their second choice to become
president should their candidate not win, electors unanimously backed

A career soldier, Yudhoyono and graduate of US military training
programmes at Fort Benning, Columbus (1976 & 1982), and the Command
and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, Texas (1991), Yudhoyono
has fond memories of the US.

"I love the United States, with all its faults. I consider it my
second country," the International Herald Tribune quoted him as saying
last year.

In a campaign dominated by personality rather than policy, he has
benefited from several factors.

Career history

Sukarnoputri is seen as an aloof and ineffective ruler who has
forgotten the orang kecil, the so-called little people, who make up
the vast, impoverished underclass in Indonesian society.

Wiranto's candidacy has been hampered by deep divisions within his own
party and lingering suspicions about his role in several high-profile
human rights abuse cases.

A career officer who married the daughter of a commander of a feared
special forces unit, Yudhoyono has proven Teflon-coated when it comes
to assigning blame.

He was in East Timor in the mid-70s and early 80s in a command
capacity during periods when Indonesian troops were accused of
widespread human rights abuses.

Military history

He was chief of staff of the Jakarta regional command, subordinate to
the current city governor Sutiyoso, when a mob backed by security
forces stormed the offices of the Indonesian Democratic party, at a
time when it was chaired by Sukarnoputri. Five of her supporters died,
150 were injured and more than two dozen activists disappeared.

Questions also remain about exactly what role he played in the
coordinated destruction of East Timor after the population of the
former Portuguese colony voted against remaining in Indonesia in a
United Nations-sponsored referendum in 1999.

That same year he moved into politics, serving briefly as mining
minister before taking over the security portfolio. Since that time he
has served administrations that looked the other way when thousands of
young Javanese Islamist militants and foreign fighters entered a
religious war between Christians and Muslims in Maluku province.

Last year, he approved the brutal year-long military operation against
separatists in Aceh province in North Sumatra that has resulted in at
least 2000 deaths. And he has done little to stem what human rights
groups claim are systematic and widespread abuses in Papua.

For and against

Yudhoyono has 15 of his fellow veterans on his campaign team. The
presence of so many retired soldiers has attracted its share of
domestic criticism.

Students, civil society and human rights groups who bore the brunt of
the excesses committed by security forces during the turbulent days
prior to Suharto's resignation have responded with hunger strikes and

His one great success has been in clamping down on suspected
terrorists at home. The government appeared rudderless in the weeks
immediately following the car bombing of a Bali nightclub that killed
more than 200 people in October 2002.

Since that time, the national police, with significant help from the
US and Australia, have hit back hard, arresting dozens of suspected
al-Qaida sympathisers.

A clearly upset Yudhoyono lashed out at questions about human rights
in the wake of the bombing of the US-owned Marriott hotel in Jakarta
last August.

"Those who criticise about human rights being breached must understand
that all the bombing victims are more important than any human rights
issue," he said.

Campaign issues

Although terrorism fails to register as a campaign issue Indonesia's
bloody recent past, has contributed to calls for tough love, what Paul
Rowland of National Democratic Institute for International Affairs in
Jakarta calls a "firm leader, but not an iron fist".

This may work to Yudhoyono's benefit. He is seen as a proponent of
military reform and a bulwark against hardliners in the highest ranks
who yearn for the unquestioned authority they had during the Suharto

"Part of the problem in Indonesia has been a recent history of weak
civilian leadership," says Ohio State University political scientist
William Liddle.

"The threat [to democracy] is not from individual retired military
officers ... but serving members using issues like separatism,
regional ethnic tensions and religious fervour to step in and say: 'We
must save our people from themselves.' SBY might be the figure to put
these people in their place."

It is a sentiment found on the streets of the capital.

"My parents talk about how the Suharto years were better, but I know
the reformist students were brutalised by the army and police," says
17-year-old Subianto, whose cigarette tray is covered by Yudhoyono's
image. "I think we need a strong leader who can control the corruptors
and keep us safe."

Teddy Sunardi

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