Menurut buku taik kucing Bible dan al-Mushaf  yagn dijadikan kitab suci oleh 
penganut agama semitik yang dungu-dungu kayak anjing itu,  Tuhan atau Allah 
yang tidak  berbukti ada itu menciptakan Adam dari tanah liat.


Study Reveals Source of Human Evolution, African Genetics

An international team of researchers has reported the largest-ever study of 
genetics in Africa that helps pinpoint where human evolution began.

The 10-year study combined efforts from African, American, and European 
researchers who studied 121 African populations, four African American 
populations and 60 non-African populations to uncover more than four million 

Teams were looking for patterns of variation at 1327 DNA markers. They 
discovered that about 71 percent of the African American population has genetic 
traces back to origins in West Africa. They also have between 13 percent and 15 
percent European ancestry and a smaller amount of other African origins.

"This is the largest study to date of African genetic diversity in the nuclear 
genome," said Sarah Tishkoff, a geneticist with joint appointments in the 
School of Arts and Sciences and the School of Medicine at the University of 

"This long term collaboration…has resulted in novel insights about levels and 
patterns of genetic diversity in Africa, a region that has been 
underrepresented in human genetic studies.”

Researchers have placed the origins of human evolution to be in southern 
Africa, near the South Africa-Namibian border. They compiled a map of ancient 
human migrations to show that modern humans likely left the continent near the 
middle of the Red Sea in East Africa.

Analysts also uncovered evidence for ancient common ancestry of geographically 
diverse hunter-gatherer populations in Africa, including Pygmies from central 
Africa and click-speaking populations from southern and eastern Africa, 
suggesting the possibility that the original pygmy language may have contained 

"Given the fact that modern humans arose in Africa, they have had time to 
accumulate dramatic changes" in their genes, Tishkoff told the Associated Press.

She added that there is no single African population that represents the modern 
diversity on the continent. This suggests that many ethnically diverse African 
populations should be included in studies of human genetic variation, disease 
susceptibility, and drug response.

“Our goal has been to do research that will benefit Africans, both by learning 
more about their population history and by setting the stage for future genetic 
studies, including studies of genetic and environmental risk factors for 
disease and drug response,” said Tishkoff.

Scott Williams, Associate Professor of Molecular Physiology & Biophysics at 
Vanderbilt University, told the AP that the study “provides a critical piece in 
the puzzle” for determining genes that may predispose certain populations to a 
particular illness, such as prostate cancer, hypertension or diabetes.

"Everybody's history is part of African history because everybody came out of 
Africa," said Muntaser Ibrahim of the department of molecular biology at the 
University of Khartoum, Sudan.

"Now we have spectacular insight into the history of the African population ... 
the oldest history of mankind.

Christopher Ehret of the department of history at the University of California, 
Los Angeles, compared genetic information to the migration of different 

He found that about 2,000 language groups exist in Africa, but they are not 
always correlated to a specific genetic variation. Movement of a language 
usually involves arrival of new people, Ehret told the AP. The genetic 
variations typically transfer along with the movement.

The study, published in the journal Science, was supported by the National 
Cancer Institute, the National Institutes of Health, the Advanced Computing 
Center for Research and Education at Vanderbilt University, the L.S.B. Leakey 
and Wenner Gren Foundation, the National Science Foundation, the David and 
Lucile Packard and Burroughs Wellcome foundations.


On the Net:

    * Science
    * University of Pennsylvania
    * A slide show of the team’s fieldwork, with audio


Published: 2009/04/30 14:30:00 CDT

© RedOrbit 2005

Jusfiq Hadjar gelar Sutan Maradjo Lelo

Allah yang disembah orang Islam tipikal dan yang digambarkan oleh al-Mushaf itu 
dungu, buas, kejam, keji, ganas, zalim lagi biadab hanyalah Allah fiktif.


Kirim email ke