*History of Prog**rammi**ng*
*What is a P**rogramming Language
- Programming language is a set of words, symbols, and codes that enables
a programmer to communicate a solution algorithm to a computer
- It is needed to allow human begins and computers to talk to each other
- A programmer can use a variety of programming languages to code a progr
- A program development tool consists of user-friendly software products
designed to assist both programmers and non-technical users with the
creation of information system solutions.
*Generation of Programming Langu*
- The *first generation *of language was the machine language. The
machine language instruction uses a series of binary digits or a combination
of numbers and letters that represents binary digits. Instructions and
addresses were numerica
- The *second generation* of language was the symbolic instructions or
mnemonics and addresses. To convert the assembly language source
programme into machine language, you use an assembler. Example, IBM, BAL and
- The *third generation* language was the programmer concentration of
structured programming and database management. It is a procedural
language that requires the programme instruction to tell the computer what
to accomplish and how to do it. Example, FORTRAN, ADA, COBOL, Pascal, C and
- The *fourth generation* (4GL) was the non-procedural type language. The
programmer only specifies what the programme should accomplish without
explaining how. Example. SQL, Postscript, and relational database
- The *fifth generation* (5GL) was concerned on Artificial Intelligence
and Fuzzy Logic.
*Advantages and disadvantages of each generation **of language*
- Readability of the language
- Ease of writing the language
- Reliability of the language
- Cost of development
- Syntax complexity
- Language standards
- Imperative Languages
- Functional Languages
- Logic Programming
*Object –Oriented Progr**amming and Concepts*
*Introduction to Object Oriented Programming and con**cepts*
*What is OOP?*
- A revolutionary concept that changed the rules in computer programme
development, object-oriented programming (OOP) is organised around "objects"
rather than "actions," data rather than logic.**
- Object-orientation is a technique for system modeling.
*Object oriented programming provides:*
- A system that can be constructed from a set of objects
- New abilities to existing objects that can expand a system
- Creating new objects can expand a system
*Object*:-is an entity able to save a state (information) and which offers
a number of operations (behavior) to either examine or effect of this state.
*Class*:-represents a template for several objects and describes how these
objects are structured internally. Objects of the same class have the same
definition both for their operations and for their information structure.
*An instance*:-is an object created from a class. The class describes the
structure of the instance, while the current state of the instance is
defined by the operations performed on the instance.
*Polymorphism* means that the sender of a stimulus does not need to know
the receiving instance's class. The receiving instance can belong to an
*Inheritance*:- As objects do not exist by themselves but are instances of
a *CLASS*, a class can inherit the features of another class and add its own
modifications. (This could mean restrictions or additions to its
functionality). *Inheritance aids in the reuse of code. *Classes can
*that is, one class can be created out of another class. The original or
parent class is known as the *SuperClass *(or base class). The child class
is known as the *SubClass *(or derived class).
*Encapsulation (or information hiding)*:-is a principle, about hiding
the details of the implementation of the interface. It is to reveal as little
as possible about the inner workings of the Interface.
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