*History of Prog**rammi**ng*

*What is a P**rogramming Language

   - Programming language is a set of words, symbols, and codes that enables
   a programmer to communicate a solution algorithm to a computer

   - It is needed to allow human begins and computers to talk to each other

   - A programmer can use a variety of programming languages to code a progr

   - A program development tool consists of user-friendly software products
   designed to assist both programmers and non-technical users with the
   creation of information system solutions.

*Generation of Programming Langu*

   - The *first generation *of language was the machine language. The
   machine language instruction uses a series of binary digits or a combination
   of numbers and letters that represents binary digits. Instructions and
   addresses were numerica

   - The *second generation* of language was the symbolic instructions or
   mnemonics and addresses. To convert the assembly language source
   programme into machine language, you use an assembler. Example, IBM, BAL and
   VAX macro.

   - The *third generation* language was the programmer concentration of
   structured programming and database management. It is a procedural
   language that requires the programme instruction to tell the computer what
   to accomplish and how to do it. Example, FORTRAN, ADA, COBOL, Pascal, C and

   - The *fourth generation* (4GL) was the non-procedural type language. The
   programmer only specifies what the programme should accomplish without
   explaining how. Example. SQL, Postscript, and relational database

   - The *fifth generation* (5GL) was concerned on Artificial Intelligence
   and Fuzzy Logic.

* *

*Advantages and disadvantages of each generation **of language*

   - Readability of the language

   - Ease of writing the language

   - Reliability of the language

   - Cost of development

   - Syntax complexity

   - Language standards

 *Language Models*

   - Imperative Languages

   - Functional Languages

   - Logic Programming

   - Object-oriented

   - Declarative

   - Scripting

   - Parallel

*Object –Oriented Progr**amming and Concepts*

*Introduction to Object Oriented Programming and con**cepts*

*What is OOP?*

   - A revolutionary concept that changed the rules in computer programme
   development, object-oriented programming (OOP) is organised around "objects"
   rather than "actions," data rather than logic.**

   - Object-orientation is a technique for system modeling.

*Object oriented programming provides:*

   - A system that can be constructed from a set of objects
   - New abilities to existing objects that can expand a system
   - Creating new objects can expand a system

 *Object*:-is an entity able to save a state (information) and which offers
a number of operations (behavior) to either examine or effect of this state.

 *Class*:-represents a template for several objects and describes how these
objects are structured internally. Objects of the same class have the same
definition both for their operations and for their information structure.

 *An instance*:-is an object created from a class. The class describes the
structure of the instance, while the current state of the instance is
defined by the operations performed on the instance.

 *Polymorphism* means that the sender of a stimulus does not need to know
the receiving instance's class. The receiving instance can belong to an

 *Inheritance*:- As objects do not exist by themselves but are instances of
a *CLASS*, a class can inherit the features of another class and add its own
modifications. (This could mean restrictions or additions to its
functionality). *Inheritance aids in the reuse of code. *Classes can
have *'Children'
*that is, one class can be created out of another class. The original or
parent class is known as the *SuperClass *(or base class). The child class
is known as the *SubClass *(or derived class).

     *Encapsulation (or information hiding)*:-is a principle, about hiding
the details of the implementation of the interface. It is to reveal as little
as possible about the inner workings of the Interface.

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