Hi Anthony,

This post is a follow-up to your insight on Twitter [0], sent here for better posterity, accessibility and readability than Twitter. And also to motivate this idea by giving another concrete [1] usecase for it. Revault [2] is a multi-party "vault" protocol. It involves 2 sets of participants that may or may not intersect (although i expect the second one to often be a subset of the first one). The stakeholders, analogous to the "cold keys", receive coins on a (large) N-of-N multisig and presign an Unvault transaction which creates an Unvault output which pays to either the (small) K-of-M multisig of the managers after a timelock or to the N-of-N immediately (allowing for a Cancel transaction). This allows for partial delegation of the funds, and some automated policies (can't broadcast the Unvault outside business hours, can't unvault more than <limit> BTC a week, etc..) that can be enforced by watchtowers. That's nice, but it would be even nicer if we could have policies on the Spend transaction (the one created by the managers to spend the Unvault output) itself to further restrict how the coin can move [3]. But in order to do so, you'd need the managers to disclaim the Spend transaction they are going to use before broadcasting the Unvault and somehow commit to it at unvaulting time. Apart from stupid hacks [4] i could not find a reasonable covenant design as a solution to this issue. It think TLUV fixes this. The idea (your idea, actually) is to receive coins not to a N-of-N anymore but to a Taproot with a branch which contains the manager multisig + a TLUV which would replace the current branch being executed by a CSV + CTV which input hash value will be taken from the witness stack at Unvault broadcast. Therefore chosen by the managers at spending time, and available for the entire duration of the timelock. So, the scripts would be something like (assuming CAT, CTV, TLUV): V = max acceptable fees D = "CTV <X> CSV DROP 1" C = "<32 bytes> D" B = " <pk man 1> CHECKSIG <pk man 2> CHECKSIGADD ... <pk man M> CHECKSIGADD <K> EQUALVERIFY IN_OUT_AMOUNT SUB <V> LESSTHANOREQUAL DUP VERIFY SIZE 32 EQUALVERIFY <0xc0 | len(D) + 32 + 1 | 0x20> SWAP CAT "Tapleaf" SHA256 DUP CAT SWAP CAT SHA256 0 SWAP 2 TLUV " A = "<pk stk 1> CHECKSIGVERIFY <pk stk 2> CHECKSIGVERIFY ... <pk stk N> CHECKSIG" The deposit output ScriptPubKey would be Taproot(A, B) [5]. The unvault output ScriptPubKey would be Taproot(A, C). This also allows for a lot more flexibility (batching at the Unvault level [7], use RBF instead of more wasteful CPFP, etc..) and creates a number of problems [6] on which i won't expand on. But it does the most important part: it enables it. Looking forward to more feedback on your proposal! Thanks, Antoine [0] https://twitter.com/ajtowns/status/1435884659146059776?s=20 [1] we've proposed Revault a year and a half ago, have been building it since. We should have a first version released soon (tm). [2] https://github.com/revault [3] technically we do optionally offer this at the moment, but at the expense of a reduction of security and a pretty ugly hack: by using "anti-replay" oracles (cosigning servers that are only going to sign only once for a given prevout) [4] the last bad idea to date is "have ANYPREVOUT, presign the Unvault with SIGHASH_SINGLE, enforce that the Unvault output is only spent with a transaction spending <same txid>:1 and have managers append an output to the Unvault enforcing a covenant just before broadcast" [5] as a branch because i don't know how to use the keypath spend for a multisig with cold keys (yet). [6] as such you'd need a sig for canceling but not for unvaulting, so it reverses the security model from "can't do anything til everyone signed" to "can steal until everyone has signed" so you'd need a TLUV for the cancel spending path as well, but then how to make this covenant non-replayable, flexible enough to feebump but not enough be vulnerable to pining, etc.. [7] Note that this means all Cancel must be confirmed to recover the funds but a single one needs to in order to prevent a spending. ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ Original Message ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ Le jeudi 9 septembre 2021 à 8:53 AM, Anthony Towns via bitcoin-dev <bitcoin-dev@lists.linuxfoundation.org> a écrit : > On Thu, Sep 09, 2021 at 04:41:38PM +1000, Anthony Towns wrote: > > > I'll split this into two emails, this one's the handwavy overview, > > > > the followup will go into some of the implementation complexities. > > (This is informed by discussions with Greg, Matt Corallo, David Harding > > and Jeremy Rubin; opinions and mistakes my own, of course) > > First, let's talk quickly about IN_OUT_AMOUNT. I think the easiest way to > > deal with it is just a single opcode that pushes two values to the stack; > > however it could be two opcodes, or it could even accept a parameter > > letting you specify which input (and hence which corresponding output) > > you're talking about (-1 meaning the current input perhaps). > > Anyway, a big complication here is that amounts in satoshis require up > > to 51 bits to represent them, but script only allows you to do 32 bit > > maths. However introducing IN_OUT_AMOUNT already means using an OP_SUCCESS > > opcode, which in turn allows us to arbitrarily redefine the behaviour > > of other opcodes -- so we can use the presence of IN_OUT_AMOUNT in the > > script to upgrade ADD, SUB, and the comparison operators to support 64 > > bit values. Enabling MUL, DIV and MOD might also be worthwhile. > > Moving onto TLUV. My theory is that it pops three items off the stack. The > > top of the stack is "C" the control integer; next is "H" the > > additional path step; and finally "X" the tweak for the internal > > pubkey. If "H" is the empty vector, no additional path step is > > added; otherwise it must be 32 bytes. If "X" is the empty vector, > > the internal pubkey is not tweaked; otherwise it must be a 32 byte > > x-only pubkey. > > The low bit of C indicates the parity of X; if it's 0, X has even y, > > if it's 1, X has odd y. > > The next bit of C indicates whether the current script is dropped from > > the merkle path, if it's 0, the current script is kept, if it's 1 the > > current script is dropped. > > The remaining bits of C (ie C >> 2) are the number of steps in the merkle > > path that are dropped. (If C is negative, behaviour is to be determined > > -- either always fail, or always succeed and left for definition via > > future soft-fork) > > For example, suppose we have a taproot utxo that had 5 scripts > > (A,B,C,D,E), calculated as per the example in BIP 341 as: > > AB = H_TapBranch(A, B) > > CD = H_TapBranch(C, D) > > CDE = H_TapBranch(CD, E) > > ABCDE = H_TapBranch(AB, CDE) > > And we're spending using script E, in that case the control block includes > > the script E, and the merkle path to it, namely (AB, CD). > > So here's some examples of what you could do with TLUV to control how > > the spending scripts can change, between the input sPK and the output sPK. > > At it's simplest, if we used the script "0 0 0 TLUV", then that says we > > keep the current script, keep all steps in the merkle path, don't add > > any new ones, and don't change the internal public key -- that is that > > we want to resulting sPK to be exactly the same as the one we're spending. > > If we used the script "0 F 0 TLUV" (H=F, C=0) then we keep the current > > script, keep all the steps in the merkle path (AB and CD), and add > > a new step to the merkle path (F), giving us: > > EF = H_TapBranch(E, F) > > CDEF =H_TapBranch(CD, EF) > > ABCDEF = H_TapBranch(AB, CDEF) > > If we used the script "0 F 2 TLUV" (H=F, C=2) then we drop the current > > script, but keep all the other steps, and add a new step (effectively > > replacing the current script with a new one): > > CDF = H_TapBranch(CD, F) > > ABCDF = H_TapBranch(AB, CDF) > > If we used the script "0 F 4 TLUV" (H=F, C=4) then we keep the current > > script, but drop the last step in the merkle path, and add a new step > > (effectively replacing the sibling of the current script): > > EF = H_TapBranch(E, F) > > ABEF = H_TapBranch(AB, EF) > > If we used the script "0 0 4 TLUV" (H=empty, C=4) then we keep the current > > script, drop the last step in the merkle path, and don't add anything new > > (effectively dropping the sibling), giving just: > > ABE = H_TapBranch(AB, E) > > Implementing the release/locked/available vault construct would then > > look something like this: > > Locked script = "OP_RETURN" > > Available script = "<HOT> CHECKSIGVERIFY IN_OUT_AMOUNT SWAP <X> SUB DUP 0 > GREATERTHAN IF GREATERTHANOREQUAL VERIFY 0 <H_LOCKED> 2 TLUV ELSE 2DROP ENDIF > <D> CSV" > > Release script = "<HOT> CHECKSIGVERIFY IF <H_LOCKED> ELSE <H_AVAILABLE> ENDIF > 0 SWAP 4 TLUV INPUTAMOUNT OUTPUTAMOUNT LESSTHANOREQUAL" > > HOT = 32B hot wallet pubkey > > X = maximum amount spendable via hot wallet at any time > > D = compulsory delay between releasing funds and being able to spend them > > H_LOCKED = H_TapLeaf(locked script) > > H_AVAILABLE= H_TapLeaf(available script) > > Internal public key = 32B cold wallet pubkey > > Moving on to the pooled scheme and actually updating the internal pubkey > > is, unfortunately, where things start to come apart. In particular, > > since taproot uses 32-byte x-only pubkeys (with implicit even-y) for the > > scriptPubKey and the internal public key, we have to worry about what > > happens if, eg, A,B,C and A+B+C all have even-y, but (A+B)=(A+B+C)-C does > > not have even-y. In that case allowing C to remove herself from the pool, > > might result in switching from the scriptPubKey Qabc to the scriptPubKey > > Qab as follows: > > Qabc = (A+B+C) + H(A+B+C, (Sa, (Sb, Sc)))*G > > Qab = -(A+B) + H( -(A+B), (Sa, Sb)*G > > That's fine so far, but what happens if B then removes himself from the > > pool? You take the internal public key, which turns out to be -(A+B) > > since (A+B) did not have even y, and then subtract B, but that gives you > > -A-2B instead of just A. So B obtains his funds, but B's signature hasn't > > been cancelled out from the internal public key, so is still required > > in order to do key path spends, which is definitely not what we want. > > If we ignore that caveat (eg, having TLUV consider it to be an error if > > you end up an internal public key that has odd-y) then the scripts for > > exiting the pool are straightforward (if your balance is BAL and your > > key is KEY): > > <KEY> DUP "" 1 TLUV > > CHECKSIGVERIFY > IN_OUT_AMOUNT SUB <BAL> GREATERTHANOREQUAL > > > It seems like "just ignore it" might be feasible for modest sized pools -- > > just choose A, B, C, D.. so that every combination of them (A+B+C, A+D, > > etc) sums to a point that happens to have even-y and have each participant > > in the pool verify that prior to using the pool. If I got my maths right, > > you'll need to do about (2n) trials to find a set of lucky points, > > but each unlucky set will tend to fail quickly, leading to amortized > > constant time for each test, so something like 3*(2n) work overall. So > > as long as n is no more than 20 or 30, that should be reasonably feasible. > > To deal with it properly, you need to have the utxo commit to the parity > > of the internal public key and have some way to find out that value when > > using TLUV. There are probably three plausible ways of doing this. > > The straightforward way is just to commit to it in the scriptPubKey -- > > that is, rather than taproot's approach of setting Q = P + H(P, S)*G where > > P is a 32 byte x-only pubkey, also commit to the parity of P in the H(P, > > S) step, and reveal the parity of the internal public key as part of the > > control block when spending via the script path, in addition to revealing > > the parity of the scriptPubKey point as we do already. Since taproot is > > already locked in for activation, it's too late to change this behaviour > > for taproot addresses, but we could include this in a future soft-fork > > that enabled entroot or similar, or we could make this the behaviour of > > (eg) 33B segwit v1 addresses that begin with 0x00, or similar. > > If we don't commit to the parity in the scriptPubKey, there are two other > > ways to commit to it in the utxo: either by having script ensure it is > > committed to it in the value, or by extending the data that's saved in > > the utxo database. > > To commit to it in the value, you might do something like: > > <P> <H> IN_OUT_AMOUNT 2 MOD SWAP 2 MOD TUCK EQUAL 2 MUL ADD TLUV > > and change TLUV's control parameter to be: C&1 = add/subtract the point, > > C&2 = require the result to be even/odd y (with C&4 and C>>3 controlling > > whether the current script and how many merkle paths are dropped). The > > idea being to require that, if the utxo's value in satoshis is 0 mod > > 2, you subtract the point, and if it's 1 mod 2, you add the point, > > and that the output amount's value in satoshis is different (mod 2) > > from the input amount's value (mod 2), exactly when the resulting point > > ends up with odd y. Combined with a rule to ensure the output amount > > doesn't decrease by more than your balance, this would effectively mean > > that if half the time when you withdraw your balance you'll have to pay > > a 1 satoshi fee to the remaining pool members so the the parity of the > > remaining value is correct, which is inelegant, but seems like workable. > > The other approach sits somewhere between those two, and would involve > > adding a flag to each entry in the utxo database to say whether the > > internal public key had been inverted. This would only be set if the > > utxo had been created via a spending script that invoked TLUV, and TLUV > > would use the flag to determine whether to add/subtract the provided > > point. That seems quite complicated to implement to me, particularly if > > you want to allow the flag to be able to be set by future opcodes that > > we haven't thought of yet. > > All of this so far assumed that the hashes for any new merkle steps are > > fixed when the contract is created. If "OP_CAT" or similar were enabled, > > however, you could construct those hashes programmatically in script, > > which might lead to some interesting behaviour. For example, you could > > construct a script that says "allow anyone to add themselves to the > > buy-a-citadel pool, as long as they're contributing at least 10 BTC", > > which would then verify they have control of the pubkey they're adding, > > and allow them to add a script that lets them pull their 10 BTC back > > out via that pubkey, and participate in key path spends in the same > > way as everyone else. Of course, that sort of feature probably also > > naturally extends to many of the "covenants considered harmful" cases, > > eg a dollar-auction-like-contract: "Alice can spend this utxo after 1000 > > confirmations" or "anyone who increases the balance by 0.1 BTC can swap > > Alice's pubkey for their own in the sibling script to this". > > An interesting thing to note is that constructing the script can sometimes > > be more efficient than hardcoding it, eg, I think > > "TapLeaf" SHA256 DUP CAT [0xc0016a] CAT SHA256 > > is correct for calculating the hash for the "OP_RETURN" script, and at > > ~17 bytes should be cheaper than the ~33 bytes it would take to hardcode > > the hash. > > To construct a new script programmatically you almost certainly need to > > use templates, eg > > SIZE 32 EQUALVERIFY [0xc02220] SWAP CAT [0xac] CAT > > "TapLeaf" SHA256 DUP CAT SWAP CAT SHA256 > > might take a public key off the stack and turn it into the hash for a > > script that expects a signature from that pubkey. I believe you could > > construct multiple scripts and combine them via > > CAT "TapBranch" SHA256 DUP CAT SWAP CAT SHA256 > > or similar as well. > > There's a serious caveat with doing that in practice though: if you allow > > people to add in arbitrary opcodes when constructing the new script, > > they could choose to have that opcode be one of the "OP_SUCCESS" opcodes, > > and, if they're a miner, use that to bypass the covenant constraints > > entirely. So if you want to think about this, the template being filled > > in probably has to be very strict, eg including the specific PUSH opcode > > for the data being provided in the witness, and checking that the length > > of the witness data exactly matches the PUSH opcode being used. > > Cheers, > > aj > > bitcoin-dev mailing list > > bitcoin-dev@lists.linuxfoundation.org > > https://lists.linuxfoundation.org/mailman/listinfo/bitcoin-dev _______________________________________________ bitcoin-dev mailing list bitcoin-dev@lists.linuxfoundation.org https://lists.linuxfoundation.org/mailman/listinfo/bitcoin-dev