On Sun, Sep 12, 2021 at 07:37:56PM -0400, Antoine Riard via bitcoin-dev wrote:
> While MERKLESUB is still WIP, here the semantic. [...]
> I believe this is matching your description and the main difference compared 
> to
> your TLUV proposal is the lack of merkle tree extension, where a new merkle
> path is added in place of the removed tapscript.

I think "<I> <P> MERKLESUB" is the same as "<P> OP_0 2 TLUV", provided
<I> happens to be the same index as the current input. So it misses the
ability to add branches (replacing OP_0 with a hash), the ability to
preserve the current script (replacing 2 with 0), and the ability to
remove some of the parent paths (replacing 2 with 4*n); but gains the
ability to refer to non-corresponding outputs.

> > That would mean anyone who could do a valid spend of the tx could
> > violate the covenant by spending to an unencumbered witness v2 output
> > and (by collaborating with a miner) steal the funds. I don't think
> > there's a reasonable way to have existing covenants be forward
> > compatible with future destination addresses (beyond something like CTV
> > that strictly hardcodes them).
> That's a good catch, thanks for raising it :)
> Depends how you define reasonable, but I think one straightforward fix is to
> extend the signature digest algorithm to encompass the segwit version (and
> maybe program-size ?) of the spending transaction outputs.

That... doesn't sound very straightforward to me; it's basically
introducing a new covenant approach, that's getting fixed into a
signature, rather than being a separate opcode.

I think a better approach for that would be to introduce the opcode (eg,
PUSH_OUTPUT_SCRIPTPUBKEY, and SUBSTR to be able to analyse the segwit
version), and make use of graftroot to allow a signature to declare that
it's conditional on some extra script code. But it feels like it's going
a bit off topic.

> > Having the output position parameter might be an interesting way to
> > merge/split a vault/pool, but it's not clear to me how much sense it
> > makes sense to optimise for that, rather than just doing that via the key
> > path. For pools, you want the key path to be common anyway (for privacy
> > and efficiency), so it shouldn't be a problem; but even for vaults,
> > you want the cold wallet accessible enough to be useful for the case
> > where theft is attempted, and maybe that's also accessible enough for
> > the ocassional merge/split to keep your utxo count/sizes reasonable.
> I think you can come up with interesting contract policies. Let's say you want
> to authorize the emergency path of your pool/vault balances if X happens (e.g 
> a
> massive drop in USDT price signed by DLC oracles). You have (A+B+C+D) forking
> into (A+B) and (C+D) pooled funds. To conserve the contracts pre-negotiated
> economic equilibrium, all the participants would like the emergency path to be
> inherited on both forks. Without relying on the key path interactivity, which
> is ultimately a trust on the post-fork cooperation of your counterparty ?

I'm not really sure what you're saying there; is that any different to a
pool of (A and B) where A suddenly wants to withdraw funds ASAP and can't
wait for a key path signature? In that case A authorises the withdrawal
and does whatever she wants with the funds (including form a new pool),
and B remains in the pool.

I don't think you can reliably have some arbitrary subset of the pool
able to withdraw atomically without using the key path -- if A,B,C,D have
individual scripts allowing withdrawal, then there's no way of setting
the tree up so that every pair of members can have their scripts cut
off without also cutting off one or both of the other members withdrawal

If you know in advance which groups want to stick together, you could
set things up as:

  (((A, B), AB), C)


  A =   "A DUP H(B') 10 TLUV CHECKSIG"  -> (B', C)
  B =   "B DUP H(A') 10 TLUV CHECKSIG"  -> (A', C)
  A' =  "A DUP 0 2 TLUV CHECKSIG"   -> (C)
  B' =  "B DUP 0 2 TLUV CHECKSIG"   -> (C)
  AB =  "(A+B) DUP 6 TLUV CHECKSIG  -> (C)
  C  =  "C DUP 0 2 TLUV CHECKSIG"   -> ((A,B), AB)

(10 = 2+4*2 = drop my script, my sibling and my uncle; 6 = 2+4*1 =
drop my script and my sibling; 2 = drop my script only)

Which would let A and B exit together in a single tx rather than needing two
transactions to exit separately.

> > Saving a byte of witness data at the cost of specifying additional
> > opcodes seems like optimising the wrong thing to me.
> I think we should keep in mind that any overhead cost in the usage of a script
> primitive is echoed to the user of off-chain contract/payment channels. If the
> tapscripts are bigger, your average on-chain spends in case of non-cooperative
> scenarios are increased in consequence, and as such your fee-bumping reserve.
> Thus making those systems less economically accessible.

If you're worried about the cost of a single byte of witness data you
probably can't afford to do script path spends at all -- certainly
having to do 64 bytes of witness data to add a signature that commits
to an amount and the like will be infeasible in that case.

> > I don't think that works, because different scripts in the same merkle
> > tree can have different script versions, which would here indicate
> > different parities for the same internal pub key.
> Let me make it clearer. We introduce a new tapscript version 0x20, forcing a
> new bit in the first byte of the control block to be interpreted as the parity
> bit of the spent internal pubkey.

That doesn't work. Suppose you start off with an even internal pubkey,
with three scripts, (A, (B,C)). All of those scripts have tapscript
version 0xc0 because the internal pubkey is even. You spend using A and
calculate the new internal pubkey which turns out to be odd. You then
need to change B and C's script version from 0xc0 to 0x20, but you can't
do that (at least, you can't do it without revealing every script).

> To ensure this parity bit is faithful and
> won't break the updated key path, it's committed in the spent taptweak.

Changing the TapTweak calculation is a hard fork; existing software
already verifies the calculation even if the script version is unknown.

> > The IN_OUT_AMOUNT opcode lets you do maths on the values, so you can
> > specify "hot wallets can withdraw up to X" rather than "hot wallets
> > must withdraw exactly X". I don't think there's a way of doing that with
> > SIGHASH_GROUP, even with a modifier like ANYPUBKEY?
> You can exchange signatures for withdraw outputs with multiples `nValue`
> covering the authorized range, assuming the ANYAMOUNT modifier ?

If you want your hotwallet to be able to withdraw up to $2000, that's
around 4,000,000 sats, so you'd be doing up to 4M signatures there if you
wanted to get the exact value you're trying to send, without having to
either overpay, or first pay yourself then have another tx that splits
your withdrawal into what you're spending and change that's no longer
in your vault.

> One advantage
> of leveraging sighash is the ability to update a withdraw policy in real-time.
> Vaults participants might be willing to bump the withdraw policy beyond X,
> assuming you have N-of-M consents.

I mean, maybe? It seems like a very heavy weight construct where a more
general approach would probably be better (eg, graftroot to attach a
script to a signature; or checkdatasig or whatever so you push a value
to the stack then check it's signature, then reuse the authenticated
data against other checks) so that you only have to supply a signature
when you want to be able to approve things after the fact.

> I think I would like to express the following contract policy. Let's say you
> have 1) a one-time conditional script path to withdraw fund ("a put on strike
> price X"), 2) a conditional script path to tweak by 3 months all the usual
> withdraw path and 3) those remaining withdraw paths. Once played out, you 
> would
> like the one-time path to be removed from your merkle tree. And this removal 
> to
> be inherited on the tweaked tree if 2) plays out.

Okay, so I think that means we've got the unconditional withdraw path
"U" (your 1), the delay path "D" (your 2) and some normal path(s) "N"
(your 3). I think you can get that behaviour with:

   S1 = Merkle( U, (D, N) )
   S2 = Merkle( U, W )
   S3 = Merkle( N )

that is, you start off with the funds in scriptPubKey S1, then spend
using D to get to S2, then spend using W to get to S3, then presumably
spend using N at some point.

The script for W is just:

   "IN_OUT_AMOUNT EQUALVERIFY 0 <N> 6 TLUV <3 months> CSV"   
       (drop the script, drop its sibling, add N, wait 3 months)

The script for D is:

   "IN_OUT_AMOUNT EQUALVERIFY 0 <W> 6 TLUV <sigcheck...>"
       (drop the script, drop its sibling, add W, extra conditions
        to avoid anyone being able to delay things)

That is, the strategy isn't "tweak the scripts by delaying them 3 months"
it's "tweak the merkle tree, to replace the scripts that would be delayed
with a new script that has a delay and then allows itself to be replaced
by the original scripts that we now want back".


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