On 9/25/19 10:56 AM, Peng Yu wrote:
I want to make my `sort` to be machine-independent and always use the
correct Unicode sort order. Is there a way to do so?

Those two goals are somewhat at odds. The only truly portable machine-independent sorting is the one guaranteed by POSIX when you use LC_ALL=C (fun fact: even on an EBCDIC machine, that is required by POSIX to collate in ASCII order, rather than native byte order). The moment you use any other locale, then you not only left to the mercies of whoever wrote that locale, but also stuck with the fact that there is no portable way to transfer locale definitions from one vendor's libc to another.

I don't know how to check where en_US.UTF-8 comes from. Do you know
how to check it? (I use Mac OS X.)

All other locales are somewhat vendor-dependent; as you've discovered, your vendor (Apple) has a rather gaping hole in their locale support. But because Apple is a closed-source shop, it will have to be Apple that fixes their bug, unless you want to take on the gargantuan task of writing a gnulib module that provides locale tables to mirror glibc for use on non-glibc machines.

Note that glibc doesn't have that problem, at least on my system:

$ cat /etc/fedora-release
Fedora release 30 (Thirty)
$ rpm -q glibc
$ printf '%s\n' cafe caff café | LC_ALL=en_US.UTF-8  sort --debug
sort: text ordering performed using ‘en_US.UTF-8’ sorting rules

So one option you could pursue is switching to an operating system that does not curtail your freedoms.

Eric Blake, Principal Software Engineer
Red Hat, Inc.           +1-919-301-3226
Virtualization:  qemu.org | libvirt.org

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