On Wed, 7 Dec 2005, JЖrn Schmidt wrote: > > However, there are only two countries, to the best of my knowledge, > that outright ban cryptography: Russia and China. And even that's only > a de-facto ban since both only require individuals to obtain a license > to use cryptography in any way, shape or form. From what I have heard, > it's nearly impossible for your average Joe to actually be issued such > a license.
This would make every computer user a criminal: default installations of most *NIXes have openssh, Windows uses cryptography at least for driver signatures, and in most cases there is an ssl implementation in his browser. IANAL, but apparently there is no need to have a license to *use* cryptography in Russia, but one does need a license to *offer* cryptographic services (<http://babelfish.altavista.com/tr> for <http://law.rambler.ru/library/norubs/11386/>): On the licensing [... 2001-07-13 ... 2001-07-20 ...] activity in the propagation of cipher (cryptographic) means; activity in the maintenance of cipher (cryptographic) means; the assignment of services in the region of the coding of information; development, the production of the cipher (cryptographic) means, protected with the use of cipher (cryptographic) means of information systems, telecommunication systems; activity in the delivery of the certificates of the keys of electronic digital signatures, registration of the owners of electronic digital signatures, the rendering of the services, connected with the use of electronic digital signatures, and the confirmation of authenticity of electronic digital signatures; activity in the development of the electronic devices, intended for secret obtaining of information, in the accomodations and the technical equipment (with exception of the case, if the activity indicated it is achieved for guaranteeing its own needs of legal person or individual owner); activity in the development and (or) to the production of the means of protection of classified information; activity in the technical protection of classified information; development, production, realization and acquisition for purposes of sale of the special technical equipment, intended for secret obtaining of information, by individual owners and by legal persons, that achieve owner's activity; Arguably, this is better when the situation that everybody can sell crypto snake oil. BTW, AFAIK, even when the *use* of crypto was banned in Russia (it was around 1995, IIRC) there was no penalty defined. -- Regards, ASK --------------------------------------------------------------------- The Cryptography Mailing List Unsubscribe by sending "unsubscribe cryptography" to [EMAIL PROTECTED]