Assume the hook works by waiting for a very specific sequence of bits to arrive along a wire, then causing an interrupt giving ring zero control to the memory location following that which the bits came from.

No amount of testing is going to reveal the hook until it is used by the attacker.

The hardware can be obfuscated, as in the innocent looking vote count programs. Correctly reverse engineering every gate, and making sure that it does in fact work as directed is likely to be hard, particularly as it is easy to unintentionally build chips that do not function as one would expect, chips where no one can figure out why they behave the way they do.

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