# [GitHub] incubator-madlib pull request #162: MLP: Multilayer Perceptron Phase 2

Github user njayaram2 commented on a diff in the pull request:

--- Diff: doc/design/modules/neural-network.tex ---
@@ -46,41 +47,49 @@ \subsection{Formal Description}
In the remaining part of this section, we will give a formal description
of the derivation of objective function and its gradient.

\paragraph{Objective function.}
-We mostly follow the notations in example 1.5.3 from Bertsekas
\cite{bertsekas1999nonlinear}, for a multilayer perceptron that has $N$ layers
(stages), and the $k$th stage has $n_k$ activation units ($\phi : \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$), the objective function is given as
-$f_{(y, z)}(u) = \frac{1}{2} \|h(u, y) - z\|_2^2,$
-where $y \in \mathbb{R}^{n_0}$ is the input vector, $z \in \mathbb{R}^{n_N}$ is the output vector,
+We mostly follow the notations in example 1.5.3 from Bertsekas
\cite{bertsekas1999nonlinear}, for a multilayer perceptron that has $N$ layers
(stages), and the $k$th stage has $n_k$ activation units ($\phi : \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$), the objective function for regression is given as
+$f_{(x, y)}(u) = \frac{1}{2} \|h(u, x) - y\|_2^2,$
+and for classification the objective function is given as
+$f_{(x, y)}(u) = \sum_i (\log(h_i(u, x)) * z_i + (1-\log(h_i(u, x))) *( 1- z_i) ,$
+where $x \in \mathbb{R}^{n_0}$ is the input vector, $y \in \mathbb{R}^{n_N}$ is the output vector (one hot encoded for classification),
\footnote{Of course, the objective function can be defined over a set of
input-output vector pairs, which is simply given as the addition of the above
$f$.}
and the coefficients are given as
-$u = \{ u_{k-1}^{sj} \; | \; k = 1,...,N, \: s = 0,...,n_{k-1}, \: j = 1,...,n_k\}$
+$u = \{ u_{k-1}^{sj} \; | \; k = 1,...,N, \: s = 0,...,n_{k-1}, \: j = 1,...,n_k\},$
+And are initialized from a uniform distribution as follows:
+$u_{k}^{sj} = uniform(-r,r),$
+where r is defined as follows:
+$r = \sqrt{\frac{6}{n_k+n_{k+1}}}$
+With regularization, an additional term enters the objective function,
given as
+$\sum_{u_k^{sj}} \frac{1}{2} \lambda u_k^{sj2}$
This still leaves $h : \mathbb{R}^{n_0} \to \mathbb{R}^{n_N}$ as an open
item.
-Let $x_k \in \mathbb{R}^{n_k}, k = 1,...,N$ be the output vector of the
$k$th layer. Then we define $h(u, y) = x_N$, based on setting $x_0 = y$ and the
$j$th component of $x_k$ is given in an iterative fashion as
-\footnote{$x_k^0 \equiv 1$ is used to simplified the notations, and
$x_k^0$ is not a component of $x_k$, for any $k = 0,...,N$.}
+Let $o_k \in \mathbb{R}^{n_k}, k = 1,...,N$ be the output vector of the
$k$th layer. Then we define $h(u, x) = o_N$, based on setting $o_0 = x$ and the
$j$th component of $o_k$ is given in an iterative fashion as
+\footnote{$o_k^0 \equiv 1$ is used to simplified the notations, and
$o_k^0$ is not a component of $o_k$, for any $k = 0,...,N$.}
--- End diff --

$j$th -> $j$^{th}.
Similar changes in several other places.


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