Github user afine commented on a diff in the pull request:

    https://github.com/apache/zookeeper/pull/476#discussion_r171973588
  
    --- Diff: 
src/java/test/org/apache/zookeeper/server/quorum/QuorumPeerMainTest.java ---
    @@ -1012,4 +1012,113 @@ public void testFailedTxnAsPartOfQuorumLoss() 
throws Exception {
                 Assert.assertNull("server " + i + " should not have /zk" + 
leader, servers.zk[i].exists("/zk" + leader, false));
             }
         }
    +
    +    /**
    +     * Verify that a node without the leader in its view will not attempt 
to connect to the leader.
    +     */
    +    @Test
    +    public void testLeaderOutOfView() throws Exception {
    +        ClientBase.setupTestEnv();
    +
    +        Layout layout = new PatternLayout("%d{ISO8601} [,yid:%X{myid}] - 
%5p [%t:%C{1}@%L] - %m%n");
    +        ByteArrayOutputStream os = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
    +        WriterAppender appender = new WriterAppender(layout, os);
    +        appender.setThreshold(Level.DEBUG);
    +        Logger qlogger = 
Logger.getLogger("org.apache.zookeeper.server.quorum");
    +        qlogger.addAppender(appender);
    +
    +        try {
    +            final int CLIENT_PORT_QP1 = PortAssignment.unique();
    +            final int CLIENT_PORT_QP2 = PortAssignment.unique();
    +            final int CLIENT_PORT_QP3 = PortAssignment.unique();
    +
    +            String quorumCfgIncomplete = getUniquePortCfgForId(1) + "\n" + 
getUniquePortCfgForId(2);
    +            String quorumCfgComplete = quorumCfgIncomplete + "\n" + 
getUniquePortCfgForId(3);
    +
    +            // Node 1 is started without the leader (3) in its config view
    +            MainThread q1 = new MainThread(1, CLIENT_PORT_QP1, 
quorumCfgIncomplete);
    +            MainThread q2 = new MainThread(2, CLIENT_PORT_QP2, 
quorumCfgComplete);
    +            MainThread q3 = new MainThread(3, CLIENT_PORT_QP3, 
quorumCfgComplete);
    +
    +            // Node 1 must be started first, before quorum is formed, to 
trigger the attempted invalid connection to 3
    +            q1.start();
    +            QuorumPeer quorumPeer1 = waitForQuorumPeer(q1, 
CONNECTION_TIMEOUT);
    +            Assert.assertTrue(quorumPeer1.getPeerState() == 
QuorumPeer.ServerState.LOOKING);
    +
    +            // Node 3 started second to avoid 1 and 2 forming a quorum 
before 3 starts up
    +            q3.start();
    +            QuorumPeer quorumPeer3 = waitForQuorumPeer(q3, 
CONNECTION_TIMEOUT);
    +            Assert.assertTrue(quorumPeer3.getPeerState() == 
QuorumPeer.ServerState.LOOKING);
    +
    +            // Node 2 started last, kicks off leader election
    +            q2.start();
    +
    +            // Nodes 2 and 3 now form quorum and fully start. 1 attempts 
to vote for 3, fails, returns to LOOKING state
    +            Assert.assertTrue("waiting for server 2 to start",
    +                    ClientBase.waitForServerUp("127.0.0.1:" + 
CLIENT_PORT_QP2, CONNECTION_TIMEOUT));
    +            Assert.assertTrue("waiting for server 3 to start",
    +                    ClientBase.waitForServerUp("127.0.0.1:" + 
CLIENT_PORT_QP3, CONNECTION_TIMEOUT));
    +
    +            Assert.assertTrue(q1.getQuorumPeer().getPeerState() == 
QuorumPeer.ServerState.LOOKING);
    +            Assert.assertTrue(q2.getQuorumPeer().getPeerState() == 
QuorumPeer.ServerState.FOLLOWING);
    +            Assert.assertTrue(q3.getQuorumPeer().getPeerState() == 
QuorumPeer.ServerState.LEADING);
    +
    +            q1.shutdown();
    +            q2.shutdown();
    +            q3.shutdown();
    +
    +            Assert.assertTrue("waiting for server 1 down",
    +                    ClientBase.waitForServerDown("127.0.0.1:" + 
CLIENT_PORT_QP1,
    +                            ClientBase.CONNECTION_TIMEOUT));
    +            Assert.assertTrue("waiting for server 2 down",
    +                    ClientBase.waitForServerDown("127.0.0.1:" + 
CLIENT_PORT_QP2,
    +                            ClientBase.CONNECTION_TIMEOUT));
    +            Assert.assertTrue("waiting for server 3 down",
    +                    ClientBase.waitForServerDown("127.0.0.1:" + 
CLIENT_PORT_QP3,
    +                            ClientBase.CONNECTION_TIMEOUT));
    +
    +        } finally {
    +            qlogger.removeAppender(appender);
    +        }
    +
    +        // Verify that Node 1 never threw an exception
    +        LineNumberReader r = new LineNumberReader(new 
StringReader(os.toString()));
    +        String line;
    +        boolean found = false;
    +        Pattern p = Pattern.compile(".*java.lang.NullPointerException.*");
    --- End diff --
    
    It would be great to have a more direct way of expressing that this member 
never enters the following state. Can we check the logs for `FOLLOWING` like in 
`testElectionFraud`?


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