Hello Stathis and James,

In answer to the first question, does the multiverse inlude perfect duplications of entire universes, the answer is yes with a but. Any particular universe in it can be sliced up in any number of ways, just as 1 = (1/n + 1/n + 1/n..... n times) for any value of n. This gives rise to a picture of a very large number of universes differentiating from each other as time moves forward, as opposed to the more conventional picture of a single universe splitting as time moves forward. Both pictures seem to be mathematically valid and mutually compatible, IMHO. The fact that at a particular instant any given universe has multiple possible futures means that any given universe can be considered as a sum of however many identical copies of that universe you like.

In answer to the second question, in addition to these perfect duplications, there are duplications that differ only by the state of a single photon somewhere in a galaxy on the other side of the universe (i.e. arbitrarily close), as well as 'duplications' that share nothing in common with our universe save the laws of physics, and everything in between.

In the plenitude theories of Max Tegmark and others, the requirement that other universes share the same laws of physics and the same big bang is relaxed.

Hope this helps,


Stathis Papaioannou wrote:

Let me add a postscript to this quicky: does the multiverse include perfect duplications, or only arbitrarily close to perfect - and does it make a difference?


From: James N Rose <[EMAIL PROTECTED]>
Subject: Re: a possible paradox
Date: Wed, 29 Oct 2003 15:52:30 -0800


does the multiverses version of existence
include perfect duplications - included
redundencies - of universes?


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When God plays dice with the Universe, He throws every number at once...


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