Leibniz's primitive is the monad or substance, which is non-extended in space.
A complete concept. This would make Leibniz's monad
semantic, semiotic, not merely logical. But not all objects
are monads, only unitary corporeal bodies.
It contains present as well as future properties, so it is time-portable.
Monads are unique nondivisible (therefore nonextended)
corporeal bodies which have no parts, but may have variations within.
"8. Substance as Monad
"Around the end of the Seventeenth Century, Leibniz famously began to use the
as his name for substance. Monad means that which is one, has no
parts and is therefore indivisible. These are the fundamental existing things,
according to Leibniz. His theory of monads is meant to be a superior
alternative to the
theory of atoms that was becoming popular in natural philosophy at the time.
Leibniz has many reasons for distinguishing monads from atoms. The easiest to
understand is perhaps that while atoms are meant to be
the smallest unit of extension out of which all larger extended things are
monads are non-extended (recall that space is an illusion on Leibniz's view).
Monads and Complete Concepts
We must begin to understand what a monad is by beginning from the idea of a
previously stated, a substance (that is, monad) is that reality which the
complete concept represents.
A complete concept contains within itself all the predicates of the subject of
which it is the concept,
and these predicates are related by sufficient reasons into a vast single
network of explanation.
So, relatedly, the monad must not only exhibit properties, but contain within
itself virtually or potentially all the properties
it will exhibit in the future, as well as contain the trace of all the
properties it did exhibit in the past.
In Leibniz's extraordinary phrase, found frequently in his later work, the
monad is pregnant
with the future and laden with the past (see, for example, Monadology 22). All
these properties are
folded up within the monad; they unfold when they have sufficient reason to do
(see, for example,Monadology 61). Furthermore, the network of explanation is
to divide it would either leave some predicates without a
sufficient reason or merely separate two substances that never belonged
the first place. Correspondingly, the monad is one, simple and indivisible."
Roger Clough, rclo...@verizon.net
"Forever is a long time, especially near the end." -Woody Allen
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