The argument below, based on the metaphysics of Leibniz, suggests that
a) Mental acts such as thinking are primarily driven by final causes, while
b) The actions of physical bodies are primarily driven by efficient causation.
[The current heated debate as to whether evolution is purposeful or not
is just plain silly, as shown below, because life HAS to be to some extent
Rocks vs flowers: Efficient causation vs purposeful causation
According to Aristotle (and Leibniz) there are at least two forms of causation:
(a) efficient causation, which is deterministic and is represented by
It is metaphorically like being pushed from the past. So here time flows
(b) final causation, which is puposeful and goal-oriented, which is
represented by living bodies.
It is metaphorically like being pulled into the future. So here time flows
That efficient causation exists is given by Newton's Laws.
That final causation exists is demonstrated by our ability to perform
intentional or purposeful acts
and by the survival of animals.
Leibniz believed that most actions of living being are combinations of these
two forms of action,
that nature and the preexisting harmony insures that there is no conflict
between the tow.
For a more complete discussion of these topics, see:
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