Spinoza, Leibniz and Descartes are completely different on the relationship
between mind and matter See
Spinoza was a monist, who believed that mind and matter were one.
Descartes believed that mind and matter are totally different
Leibniz beleived that mind was a monad or mental aspect of matter.
Bertrand Ruseell said that there are two forms of knowing:
a) Knowing scientifically or objectively (knowing by description)
Example: you know who Obama is from the newspapers.
b) Knowing by acquaintance or experience (knowing subjectively)
Example: you know who Obama is because you have met him.
Dr. Roger B Clough NIST (ret.) [1/1/2000]
See my Leibniz site at
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