Berkeley and Leibniz- where the monads came from

In Berkeley's philosophy of idealism, a subject is needed
to perceive objects, otherwise they could not exist. 
Leibniz got around the problem of what happens if
nobody's there (a tree falls in a wood...)
by dividing up the world into physical objects and
assigning a subject (a monad) to each object.
This everything is conscious to some extent.
Otherwise it could not follow the pre-established harmony. 
Dr. Roger B Clough NIST (ret.) [1/1/2000]
See my Leibniz site at

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