Dear Gordana and colleagues, You are right, the concept ‘agent’ is just the abstraction of our understanding about the active entities which has possibility to be ‘intelligent’. Below I remember a short text about it:
The definition of the concept "intelligence" was given in . It follows from the “General Information Theory”  and especially from the “Theory of Infos” . The intelligence is a synergetic combination of: – (primary) activity for external interaction. This characteristic is basic for all open systems. Activity for external interaction means possibility to reflect the influences from environment and to realize impact on the environment; – information reflection and information memory, i.e. possibility for collecting the information. It is clear; memory is basic characteristic of intelligence for “the ability to learn”; – information self-reflection, i.e. possibility for generating "secondary information". The generalization (creating abstractions) is well known characteristic of intelligence. Sometimes, we concentrate our investigations only to this very important possibility, which is a base for learning and recognition. The same is pointed for the intelligent system: “To reach its objective it chooses an action based on its experiences. It can learn by generalizing the experiences it has stored in its memories”; – information expectation i.e. the (secondary) information activity for internal or external contact. This characteristic means that the prognostic knowledge needs to be generated in advance and during the interaction with the environment the received information is collected and compared with one generated in advance. This not exists in usual definitions but it is the foundation-stone for definition of the concept "intelligence"; – resolving the information expectation. This correspond to that the "intelligence is the ability to reach ones objectives". The target is a model of a future state (of the system) which needs to be achieved and corresponding to it prognostic knowledge needs to be "resolved" by incoming information. In summary, the intelligence is creating and resolving the information expectation . The concept "intelligence" is a common approach for investigating the natural and artificial intelligent agents. It is clear; the reality is more complex than one definition. Presented understanding of intelligence is important for realizations of the intelligent computer systems. The core element of such systems needs to be possibility for creating the information expectation as well as the one for resolving it. The variety of real implementations causes corresponded diversity in the software but the common principles will exist in all systems. Summarizing, the artificial system is intelligent if it has: – Activity for external interaction; – Information reflection and information memory; – Possibility for generalization (creating abstractions); – Information expectation; – Resolving the information expectation. At the end, the five main problems of the science “Artificial Intelligence” are to develop more and more “smart”: – sensors and actuators - to realize external interaction; – memory structures - to learn; – generalization algorithms - to make abstractions; – prognostic knowledge generation - to create information expectation; – resolving the information expectation - to reach objectives. Bibliography 1. I. Mitov, Kr. Markov, Kr. Ivanova. The Intelligence. Plenary paper. Third International Scientific Conference “Informatics in the Scientific Knowledge”. University Publishing House, VFU “Chernorizets Hrabar”, 2010. ISSN: 1313-4345. pp. 7-13 2. Kr. Markov, Kr. Ivanova, I. Mitov. Basic Structure of the General Information Theory. Int. Journal “Information Theories and Applications”, Vol.14/2007, No.:1, pp.5-19. 3. Kr. Markov, Kr. Ivanova, I. Mitov. Theory of Infos. Int. Book Series "Information Science & Computing" – Book No: 13. Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems, Sofia, 2009, pp.9-16. Friendly regards Krassimir From: Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic Sent: Tuesday, April 16, 2013 4:06 PM To: karl.javors...@gmail.com Cc: Pedro C. Marijuan ; Krassimir Markov ; Joseph Brenner ; Loet Leydesdorff ; bob logan ; fis Subject: RE: FIS Information and the Eye of the Beholder My interpretation of Krassimir’s words: “In other words, the information is kind of reflection for which the CONCRETE Subject have appropriate interpretation (an evidence what is reflected). Subject may be a human, an animal, an electronic device, etc. i.e. natural or artificial entity.“ is that by “subject” Krassimir refers to an agent, animate or inanimate. And an agent is anything with ability to act (on its own behalf). It can be a neutron. For a neutron electric field makes no difference. But nuclear force can make a difference. And of course in that picture there is always a human to make sense of everything, including neutrons, humans and herself (reflectively). (I think Loet mentioned this before). John Collier had several good references, and the question is only (as he says) if we want to make this unification or not. If yes then not only the traditional idea but also generalized notion of information makes good sense. Best regards, Gordana From: Karl Javorszky [mailto:karl.javors...@gmail.com] Sent: den 16 april 2013 14:56 To: Pedro C. Marijuan; Krassimir Markov; Joseph Brenner; Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic; Loet Leydesdorff; bob logan; fis Subject: FIS Information and the Eye of the Beholder As Krassimir has pointed out, the term "information" is inseparable from the human utilising (communicating, sending/receiving/evaluating) the information. To say "Information is that difference that makes a difference" is like saying "Cookies are what produce an excellent sensation in the mouth" or "Music is what enchants by fascinating". The anthropomorphic thinking is characteristic of the so-called "magical-mythical" way of thinking that children learn at the age of about 4-5 years. No abstract entity can "make" or "generate" or "produce" anything, least of all differences. The differences are either there or not. They are definitely not made or produced by a wizard or sorcerer or aliens or green mutant informators. For someone who is too dumb, nothing ever makes a difference; for hysterics, everything is incessantly over-the-top, incomparable, unique, never-heard-of, significant, a signal of a conspiracy. The proposal was made in Step 12 of Learn to Count in Twelve Easy Steps to use the term "information" like the terms "beauty", "satisfaction", "desire" etc. Being informed is a property of the spectator, not of the spectaculum.
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