> I'm writing about the use of 16mm in experimental filmmaking of the 1970s and 
> am looking for texts that deal with the history of film technology, scholarly 
> sources that look, for example, at the emergence of 16mm as an 
> amateur/documentary/artists' medium. 

Hmm. If we distinguish 'amateurs' from 'artists' 16mm emerged as an amateur 
medium decades before the 70s, and was all but submerged for amateurs by the 
70s, in favor of Super-8. You'd be hard pressed to find any artists who worked 
with the 'amateur' 16mm cameras that were made at least through the 1950s: 
Kodak K100, B+H 240, Reveres… and only spare use of 'amateur' Kodachrome and 
Ektachrome stocks that didn't come back from the lab with edge numbers.

The history of documentary tech is a whole 'nother creature -- all 16mm up to 
the 70s -- but marked by advances in blipping, sound sync, battery power, 
coaxial magazines, reflex finders, etc. etc. (I have an AC-power only 
Yoder-style chop-top in my closet, if anyone wants one…). Only in the 70s did 
portable video emerge as a documentary medium, e.g. in the ½" open-reel 'Four 
More Years' by TVTV.

Experimental filmmaking was not articulated to 'amateur' filmmaking as much as 
industrial/educational filmmaking. Experimental filmmaking was dependent on the 
wide availability of cameras, projectors, stocks, labs etc. primarily used by 
the 'A/V' market. Once that market moved to video, those sources began to dry 
up, posing ever-increasing difficulties to photo-chemical experimental work. A 
tech history of experimental film in the 70s should also look at it's 
intersections/oppositions to technologies used in 'video art', e.g. in Scott 
Bartlett's 'Off/On', and computer graphics, e.g. John Whitney.

All that said, for the history of 'amateur' film, it would be remiss not to 
mention the work of FRAMEWORKER Patti Zimmerman, noted on the CHM site Buck 

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