I believe I have found a security vulnerability in dump, which, under the right conditions, allows any user with shell-access to gain root-privileges.
When dumping to a file, dump writes this file chmod 644. When the root-partition is being backed-up, this leaves the dump-file vulnerable to scanning by unprivileged users for the duration of the dump. I tested this, and, as a non-privileged user, was able to extract the root-password from the dump-file using a simple regex: "(/root:(.*?):0:0::0:0:Superuser:/)". This, of course, based on the fact that /etc/master.passwd also becomes part of the dump-file. As to how high to rank this exploitability, I am not sure. Certain conditions need to be met. The dump must be made to file, and the unprivileged user must, naturally, know the name of the dump-file; and the dump, of course, must be made in multi-user mode. Still, I would feel a lot better if the FreeBSD development team made a small adjustment to dump, writing its dump-file chmod 600, which would immediately solve any and all exploitability. If people deem it serious enough, I will file a report. Thanks for listening. P.S. I understand, of course, that the dump-file, when written to a directory to which non-privileged users have no access, would still be safe. But I deem it best to make dump safe on its own, and not have its safety depend on external factors. - Mark System Administrator Asarian-host.org --- "If you were supposed to understand it, we wouldn't call it code." - FedEx To Unsubscribe: send mail to [EMAIL PROTECTED] with "unsubscribe freebsd-questions" in the body of the message