On Sat, Sep 06, 2008 at 07:28:28PM -0600, Andrew Falanga wrote:
> Well, my clients at church are still having issues and after working with 
> George, a respondant to my original questions, I think that most, if not all, 
> of my problems are related to DNS and how we've got it improperly configured.
> First, a crude drawing of how our mail server exists in the world:
> 192.168.2.x/24       "lot's of networks"
> Private Network <--> CableOne <--> Internet
> Now, our mail server's IP is  On the router, he (the person at 
> whose house the mail server is) has IP forwarding setup so that mail get's 
> sent to our FreeBSD machine.  Using dig, here's the responses:
> (from my FBSD machine at home, not the server)
> [/usr/home/andy] -> dig +short -t MX whitneybaptist.org
> 10 mail.whitneybaptist.org.
> [/usr/home/andy] -> dig +short -t A whitneybaptist.org
> [/usr/home/andy] -> dig +short -x
> 34-252.72-24-cpe.cableone.net.
> (from the church FBSD machine)
> [/home/afalanga] -> hostname
> whitbap
> [/home/afalanga] -> ifconfig fxp0
>         options=8<VLAN_MTU>
>         inet netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast
>         ether 00:d0:b7:74:87:48
>         media: Ethernet autoselect (100baseTX <full-duplex>)
>         status: active
> [/home/afalanga] -> cat /etc/resolv.conf
> search McCutchanLAN
> nameserver
> It doesn't take a rocket scientist, or a computer scientist, to figure out 
> we've got DNS issues.  I'm thinking that I should setup a domain within the 
> network on this box.  I've done this before, at work.  The 
> question I've got is I've never actually integrated a domain like this to a 
> domain on the Internet.  I'm thinking that we'll setup something like: 
> internal.whitneybaptist.org with hosts in that sub-domain.
> So, what would my DNS tables need to look like to make this happen.  Also, to 
> any knowledgable souls here, what RFCs address these issues?

Hello again, Andy.
What you're asking is actually a FAQ, but I'll spell things out anyway.
The following excerpt from RFC 1918 is most relevant:

        If an enterprise uses the private address space, or a mix of
        private and public address spaces, then DNS clients outside of
        the enterprise should not see addresses in the private address
        space used by the enterprise, since these addresses would be
        ambiguous.  One way to ensure this is to run two authority
        servers for each DNS zone containing both publically and
        privately addressed hosts.  One server would be visible from the
        public address space and would contain only the subset of the
        enterprise's addresses which were reachable using public
        addresses.  The other server would be reachable only from the
        private network and would contain the full set of data,
        including the private addresses and whatever public addresses
        are reachable the private network.  In order to ensure
        consistency, both servers should be configured from the same
        data of which the publically visible zone only contains a
        filtered version. There is certain degree of additional
        complexity associated with providing these capabilities.

That's a roundabout way of saying you can't "mix and match" private
non-routable addresses with public addresses in the same namespace.

Note the "authoritative" part.  Until CableOne delegates your assigned
netblock to your organisation, your public DNS server will not be
authoritative (it currently isn't!) for  You can reference
RFC 2317 (classless in-addr.arpa delegation) for how that works.  As to
why you must be authoritative, I've already pointed out off-list how Bad
Things can happen when you're not, especially in regards to email where
reverse lookups are integral to How Things Work.

As for other RFCs, I'd suggest instead starting with a careful reading
of the Bind ARM at http://www.isc.org/sw/bind/, followed by a once-over
of the Bind FAQ, and possibly the FreeBSD-supplied configuration files.
To save you some time, the following abbreviated context-specific
examples should explain things more clearly and get you started:

Example 1:  Two domains and two separate (sets of) name servers:

        On the ns.whitneybaptist.org machine:

                zone "whitneybaptist.org" {
                        type master;
                        file "master/whitneybaptist.org";
                zone "" {
                        type master;
                        file "master/db.";

        On the ns.internal.whitneybaptist.org machine:

                zone "internal.whitneybaptist.org" {
                        type master;
                        file "master/internal.whitneybaptist.org";
                zone "1.168.192.in-addr.arpa" {
                        type master;
                        file "master/db.192.168.1";

                # slave whitneybaptist.org zones here

        The contents of /etc/resolv.conf for internal hosts:

                domain internal.whitneybaptist.org
                nameserver 192.168.1.X

Example 2:  One domain and a single (set of) name server(s) employing
Bind's "view" feature:

        acl "lan_hosts" { 192.168.1/24; 192.168.2/24; };
        key "external" {
                algorithm hmac-md5;
                secret "XXXXXXX==";

        view "internal" {
                match-clients { !key external; lan_hosts; };
                allow-recursion { lan_hosts; };
                zone "whitneybaptist.org" {
                        type master;
                        file "master/whitneybaptist.org.internal";
                zone "1.168.192.in-addr.arpa" {
                        type master;
                        file "master/db.192.168.1";
        view "external" {
                match-clients { key external; any; };
                recursion no;
                zone "whitneybaptist.org" {
                        type master;
                        file "master/whitneybaptist.org.external";
                zone "" {
                        type master;
                        file "master/db.";

        The contents of /etc/resolv.conf for internal hosts:

                domain whitneybaptist.org
                # Note: if 'nameserver' is NAT-ed, you'd use its
                # internal address instead

You'll have to decide for yourself which approach works best for you.  

        - If you opt for 2 domains, you'll need to reconfigure all your
          internal hosts, and then add more machines to serve up DNS for those

        - If you opt for one domain and use Bind's view feature, you can leave
          your internal hosts alone (assuming they're already part of the
          whitneybaptist.org domain) and skip the requirement for additional
          machines, but your DNS configuration will be a little more complex.

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