Hi Richard,

On 06/03/18 16:04, Richard Biener wrote:
On Tue, Mar 6, 2018 at 4:21 PM, Renlin Li <renlin...@arm.com> wrote:
Hi all,

The problem described here probably only affects targets whose ABI allow to
pass structured
arguments of certain size via registers.

If the mode of the parameter type is BLKmode, in the callee, during RTL
a stack slot will be reserved for this parameter, and the incoming value
will be copied into
the stack slot.

However, the stack slot for the parameter will not be aligned if the
alignment of parameter type
Chances are, unaligned memory access might cause run-time errors.

For local variable on the stack, the alignment of the data type is honored,
although the document states that it is not guaranteed.

For example:

#include <stdint.h>
union U {
     uint32_t M0;
     uint32_t M1;
     uint32_t M2;
     uint32_t M3;
} __attribute((aligned(16)));

void tmp (union U *);
void foo (union U P0)
   union U P1 = P0;
   tmp (&P1);

The code-gen from armv7-a is like this:

     @ args = 0, pretend = 0, frame = 48
     @ frame_needed = 0, uses_anonymous_args = 0
     str    lr, [sp, #-4]!
     sub    sp, sp, #52
     mov    ip, sp
     stm    ip, {r0, r1, r2, r3}  --> ip is not 128-bit aligned
     add    lr, sp, #39
     bic    lr, lr, #15
     ldm    ip, {r0, r1, r2, r3}
     stm    lr, {r0, r1, r2, r3} --> lr is 128-bit aligned
     mov    r0, lr
     bl    tmp
     add    sp, sp, #52
     @ sp needed
     ldr    pc, [sp], #4

There are other obvious missed optimizations in the code-generation above.
The stack slot for parameter P0 and local variable P1 could be merged.
So that some of the load/store instructions could be removed.
I think this is a known missed optimization case.

To summaries, there are two issues here:
1, (wrong code) unaligned stack slot allocated for parameters during
function expansion.
2, (missed optimization) stack slot for parameter sometimes is not
    In certain scenario, the argument register could directly be used.
    Currently, this is only possible when the parameter mode is not BLKmode.

For issue 1, we can do similar things as expand_used_vars.
Dynamically align the stack slot address for parameters whose alignment
PREDERRED_STACK_BOUNDARY. Other parameters could be store in gap between the
aligned address and fp when possible.

For issue 2, I checked the behavior of LLVM, it seems the stack slot
for parameters are explicitly exposed by the alloca IR instruction at the
very beginning.
Later, there are optimization/transformation passes like mem2reg, reg2mem,
sroa etc. to remove
unnecessary alloca instructions.

In gcc, the stack allocation for parameters and local variables are done
during expand pass, implicitly.
And RTL passes are not able to remove the unnecessary stack allocation and
load/store operations.

For example:

uint32_t bar(union U P0)
   return P0.M0;

Currently, the code-gen is different on different targets.
There are various backend hooks which make the code-gen sub-optimal.
For example, aarch64 target could directly return with w0 while armv7-a
target generates unnecessary
store and load.

However, this optimization should be target independent, unrelated target
alignment configuration.
Both issue 1&2 could be resolved if gcc has a similar approach. But I assume
the change is big.

Is there any suggestions for solving issue 1 and improving issue 2 in a
generic way?
I can create a bugzilla ticket to record the issue.

What does the ABI say for passing such over-aligned data types?

For solving 1) you could copy the argument as passed by the ABI
to a properly aligned stack location in the callee.

Generally it sounds like either the ABI doesn't specify anything
or the ABI specifies something that violates user expectation.

For 2) again, it is the ABI which specifies whether an argument
is passed via the stack or via registers.  So - what does the ABI say?

The compiler is doing the right thing here to pass argument via registers.
To be specific, there are such clause in the arm PCS:

B.5 If the argument is an alignment adjusted type its value is passed as a copy 
of the actual value. The
copy will have an alignment defined as follows.
For a Composite Type, the alignment of the copy will have 4-byte alignment if 
its natural alignment is
<= 4 and 8-byte alignment if its natural alignment is >= 8

C.3 If the argument requires double-word alignment (8-byte), the NCRN is 
rounded up to the next even
register number.
C.4 If the size in words of the argument is not more than r4 minus NCRN, the 
argument is copied into
core registers, starting at the NCRN. The NCRN is incremented by the number of 
registers used.
Successive registers hold the parts of the argument they would hold if its 
value were loaded into
those registers from memory using an LDM instruction. The argument has now been 

This is quite similar for other RISC machines.
Here, the problem here how arguments/parameters are received in the callee.
To store the incoming parameters on the stack, it seems an implementation 

Even for the following case without over-alignment, in the callee, it will save 
r0-r3 into local
stack first, and load M3 from local copy.

struct U {
    uint32_t M0;
    uint32_t M1;
    uint32_t M2;
    uint32_t M3;

int x (struct U p)
  return p.M3;




Reply via email to