Whereas, we consider it an historical necessity to institutionalize a full 
democratic republican state system by bringing to an end the feudal monarchic 
state in consonance with the mandate of the armed and unarmed democratic 
movements against the autocratic monarchical centralized feudal system launched 
by the Nepali people since 1950 A. D. and specifically, the historical People’s 
Movement launched to institutionalize a republican system in April 2006 on the 
foundation of the People’s War launched since 1996 by the CPN (Maoist) as well 
as with the support of the 12-point understanding between the political parties 
and the Maoist;

And whereas, we are fully committed to preservation and promotion of the 
country’s sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity;

And whereas, we have a strong conviction that the Nepali people are the only 
source of all powers of the State;

And whereas, we realize the necessity to have a forward-looking restructuring 
of the state and society in a way to address on a long-term basis the problems 
of the country’s majority of the exploited and oppressed class, nationalities, 
regions, gender and community;

And whereas, we are aware of the fact that, based on the right to 
self-determination and the policy of autonomous rule of various oppressed 
nationalities and regions in the hills, valleys and the plains, a federal 
system with Nepali specificities has to be established by bringing to an end 
the old unitary structure; 

Therefore, we sovereign Nepalese people, through a broad national political 
convention of the democratic revolutionary forces, hereby annul the existing 
Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal 1990 and promulgate and enforce the 
Interim Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal 2006 for the 
period until another democratic constitution is created through an elected 
Constituent Assembly with proportionate and inclusive representation of all 
classes, nationalities, regions, gender and communities. 


Part 1

Directive Principles of the State

1.   A state system of democratic republic shall be established by bringing to 
an end all the remnants of monarchy and feudal autocracy. 

2.   There shall be full commitment to the universally accepted norms and 
values like a multiparty competitive system, adult franchise, periodic 
elections, rule of law, human rights, fundamental rights etc. 

3.   Democratic norms and values shall be established in all political, 
economic, social and cultural sectors by bringing to an end feudal and 
imperialist exploitation-oppression in all forms. 

4.   A federal system with Nepali specificities shall be established on the 
basis of the rights to self-determination and autonomous rule of the oppressed 
nationalities and regions by bringing to an end the feudal autocratic system 
based on Arya-Khasa upper caste chauvinism.

5.   The State shall be fully secular.

6.   All types of feudal land relations existing in agriculture, on which are 
dependent a large majority of people, shall be abolished, and a progressive 
land reforms program based on the principle of ‘land to the tillers' shall be 

7.   The State shall make special arrangements for workers, peasants, landless 
squatters, kamaiyas (bonded-laborers), tillers and herdsmen etc. 

8.   A policy of rapid and widespread national industrialization shall be 
adopted, and the State shall formulate and implement necessary financial 
policies and laws for the protection of national industrialists and business 

9.   Bilateral relations shall be established with all countries on the basis 
of the principles of Panchsheel, and special efforts shall be made to maintain 
balanced and cordial relations with the two principal neighbors, India and 

10. All unequal treaties and agreements of the past shall be annulled, and new 
treaties and agreements based on equality and mutual interest shall be made.

11. The State shall make necessary arrangements for proper respect of those who 
achieved martyrdom in course of the ten-year People’s War and People’s 
Movement. Investigations shall be launched to look for those disappeared during 
that time and the guilty shall be punished duly. The State shall make special 
arrangements for the security and facility of the martyr families, the families 
of the disappeared and the injured as well as the maimed. 

12. The State shall provide protection to the elderly citizens, the destitute, 
the physically disabled and those suffering from chronic diseases. 


Part 2


1.   Every Nepali citizen shall have the rights to citizenship, and no one 
shall be deprived of the rights without proper reasons. 

2.   The descendents may be able to acquire the citizenship in the name of 
either of their parents. 

3.   Constituting a high level Citizenship Commission, citizenship certificates 
in recommendation of an all-party committee at the local level shall 
immediately be distributed, before the Constituent Assembly elections, to the 
people who have been living in Nepal for a long time but have been deprived of 
the citizenship, particularly in Madesh.

4.   Other provisions relating to acquisition and termination of citizenship 
shall be as determined by laws. 


Part 3

Fundamental Rights and Duties

1.   Fundamental Rights

i.    All citizens shall be equal before the law. No discrimination shall be 
made against any citizen on the grounds of ethnicity, class, gender, region, 
language, culture and ideology or conviction.

ii.    Every citizen shall have freedom to express and publish opinions, 
establish associations and organizations, elect representatives and be elected, 
move across the country, assemble and carry on any occupation.  No person shall 
be deprived of their personal liberty save in accordance with the law.

iii.   Education, health, shelter and employment shall be the birthrights of 
every citizen.  

iv.   Every citizen shall have the right against untouchability, social 
discrimination and exploitation. 

v.   Patriarchal exploitation of women in all forms shall end. Daughter shall 
have equal rights to parental property at par with son. Women shall be entitled 
full freedom in the issues of marriage, sale and purchase of properties, 
divorce or conception or abortion of pregnancy. Special rights shall be 
guaranteed for women in all sectors including their representation in state 

vi.   All types of exploitation-oppression including untouchability of the 
Dalits shall end, and special rights shall be ensured for the Dalits in all 

vii.  The bona-fide tiller peasants shall have the right over land. 

viii. Laborers and workers shall possess the right to put demands against any 
type of discrimination and oppression, engage in collective bargaining and go 
on strike.

ix.   Everyone shall possess the right to acquire education and to conduct 
official works in their respective mother language. 

x.   Every citizen shall have the right to use their property. But no one shall 
be allowed to keep property above the limit fixed by law. 

xi.   Every citizen shall be free to follow or not to follow religion as per 
their conviction.

xii.  The local people shall have primary right over local natural resources, 
including water, land, forests, mines etc. 

xiii. Every citizen shall have the right to effective legal treatment from able 
courts of law for the assertion of their rights. 


2.   Duties

i.    Every citizen shall have to abide by the constitution and laws.

ii.    They shall have to protect the State’s property.

iii.   They shall have to enlist in the army and work as demanded by the State 
for the defence of the country.


Part 4

Interim Legislature

1.   There shall be an all-powerful Interim Legislature in Nepal. The country’s 
legislative powers to be used as per this Constitution and the laws made under 
this Constitution shall be vested in this Interim Legislature.  

2.   A broad National Political Convention shall constitute the Interim 
Legislature for the interim period. Participation in the Convention and its 
criteria shall be finalized through negotiation between the CPN (Maoist) and 
the Seven Political Parties.  

3.   The broad National Political Convention shall constitute an Interim 
Legislature as follows: 

a)   One third representatives from the Seven Political Parties, totalling 101 

b)   One third representatives from the CPN (Maoist), totalling 101 

c)   One third representatives from civil society, professional organizations 
and special personalities of the country who participated in the Democratic 
Movement, totaling 101. Their selection shall be made through mutual 
understanding between the Seven Political Parties and the CPN (Maoist). 

While selecting representatives, attention shall have to be given to proper 
inclusion of class, nationalities, regions, gender and other communities.

In this way, the total number of members in the Interim Legislature shall be 

4.   The reinstated House of Representatives shall be dissolved on the day this 
Constitution comes into force, and all the powers being hitherto exercised by 
the House of Representatives shall, pursuant to this Constitution, be exercised 
by the Interim Legislature. 

5.   The Interim Legislature shall be the State’s supreme body during the 
interim period. It shall execute all necessary works relating to formation of 
the Council of Ministers, elections to constitutional posts, formulation of, 
amendment to and annulment of laws, foreign relations and approval of treaties 
and agreements, declaration of war and peace, budget endorsement, elections to 
the Constituent Assembly etc. 

6.   The Interim Legislature, in its first meeting, shall elect a Chairperson 
and a Deputy Chairperson. 

7.   The Interim Legislature shall pass ordinary decisions with simple majority 
while the issues of national interest that have long-term impacts shall be 
decided by two-third majority or through a referendum. Its process shall be as 

8.   The tenure of the Interim Legislature shall be until the formation of the 
elected Constituent Assembly. 

9.   If a post in the Interim Legislature falls vacant before its tenure 
expires, the vacancy shall be filled for the remaining period. While filling 
the vacant post, it shall be done on the basis of the same representation. 


Part 5

Interim Government

1.   The Interim Legislature shall constitute a Council of Ministers under the 
leadership of Prime Minister to work as an Interim Government. Executive powers 
of Nepal shall be vested in the Interim Government or the Council of Ministers. 
The Council of Ministers shall exercise all executive powers to run day-to-day 
administration. The Council of Ministers shall be fully accountable to the 
Interim Legislature. 

2.   The Prime Minister of the Interim Government shall form a Cabinet and 
divide portfolios on the basis of the same representation as in the Interim 
Legislature. The number of members of the Council of Ministers shall not exceed 
one tenth of the number of members of the Interim Legislature. 


Part 6

Interim Court

1.   All judicial works during the interim period shall be conducted by the 
Supreme Court and its subordinate courts as well as People’s Courts established 
and being operated in rural areas. 

2.   Judges at every level shall be appointed after approval by the Interim 
Legislature or a people’s representative body of the same level. The incumbent 
judges shall remain in office only if the Interim Legislature endorses them. 
Otherwise, they shall be relieved of the post. 

3.   Judges at every level shall be institutionally accountable to the people’s 
representative body of their own level and to the Chief Justice regarding their 
day-to-day office work. 


Part 7

Interim Security Provision

1.   Nepali Army and the People’s Liberation Army shall, during the time of 
elections to the Constituent Assembly in the interim period as per the 12-point 
understanding and the 8-point agreement, be limited within their respective 
barracks and camps, and they will be monitored by reliable national and 
international teams. 

2.   Both the armies shall be under the Interim Legislature and the Interim 
Government, and the Prime Minister shall be the Supreme Commander of both of 

3.   For internal security provision as well as for monitoring, control and 
mobilization of both the armies, there shall be a high level Military 
Commission whose formation and number of members shall be finalized through 
agreement between the seven political parties and the CPN (Maoist). The 
Military Commission shall have a chairperson who shall be appointed by the 
Interim Legislature. 

4.   Necessary measures shall be taken during the interim period for timely 
democratization of the Nepali Army that has traditionally been loyal to the 
monarchy. Its concrete structure and procedure shall be finalized by the 
Military Commission. 

5.   A militia shall be created with mutual agreement between the two sides in 
order to regulate the State’s legal provisions during the interim period and to 
manage the elections to the Constituent Assembly. The Prime Minister shall 
mobilize the militia. 

6.   After the Constituent Assembly elections, a new national army shall be 
created on the basis of the elections result through mutual agreement. 


Part 8

Constitutional Bodies

The Interim Legislature shall formulate constitutional bodies like Election 
Commission, Financial Control and Discipline Commission, Public Service 
Commission etc. that are essential in a democratic system, and appoint 
commissioners who shall be accountable to the Interim Legislature. 


Part 9

Head of the State

During the interim period when monarchy has come to an end and an elected 
Constituent Assembly is yet to make an alternative provision, the Chairperson 
of the Interim Legislature shall act as the Head of the State. 


Part 10

Autonomous Republic and Local Bodies

1.   In line with a new federal structure, the country shall be divided into 
nine autonomous republic states namely Kirant Republic, Madhesh Republic, 
Tamang Republic, Newa Republic, Tamuwan Republic, Magarat Republic, Tharuwan 
Republic, Bheri-Karnali Republic and Seti-Mahakali Republic, and in each of 
them, an interim autonomous republic government shall be formed. The formation 
of the interim autonomous republic governments shall be based on an agreement 
between the seven political parties and the CPN (Maoist) of the concerned 

2.   The formation of interim local governments in the districts, villages as 
well as municipalities of the autonomous republic states shall be as agreed 
between the seven political parties and the CPN (Maoist) of the concerned 
states and districts. 

3.   Following the formation of interim governments in the autonomous states 
and local bodies, the people’s government operated by the CPN (Maoist) shall be 


Part 11

Constituent Assembly

1.   As decided by the Interim Government, the elections to the Constituent 
Assembly shall be held within a year from the date of enforcement of this 

2.   Ensuring inclusive and proportionate representation, the Constituent 
Assembly shall have a total of 225 members, including ten each from the nine 
autonomous republic states totalling 90, 125 directly elected with one seat 
equivalent to 200,000 people as well as ten nominated from among experts and 
the endangered and marginalized ethnic groups. 

3.   Women, oppressed nationalities, dalits, the disabled etc. shall be 
included in the Constituent Assembly in proportion to their population. 

4.   The Constituent Assembly shall draft a new constitution within a year. 


Part 12


1.   Important political, economic, and social issues of the country shall be 
decided through referendum. 

2.   The treaties and agreements with foreign countries relating to the sharing 
of natural resources or those that have severe long-term impacts on the country 
shall be endorsed only through a two-third majority of the Legislature or a 

3.   The provisions in this Interim Constitution shall be enacted as stated in 
it and those that are not stated in it shall be enacted as per the decisions of 
the Interim Legislature and the Interim Government formed pursuant to this 

4.   The Interim Government shall enforce this Constitution after having it 
endorsed by the Legislature pursuant to this Constitution. 





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