Manhattan (and New York County) migrants, in New York City:

1st, 2nd, & 3rd of August, 2019 (Thursday, Friday & Saturday)

August migratory movements have begun… & while many of those birds of passage 
are sought near shores & on mudflats, there are also birds of field, forest, 
fen, &, with raptor migration also having just started - fly-overs which also 
include many diurnally migrating songbirds and other ‘land’ bird & all sorts of 
species. (including insects that migrate for those watching!)

Semipalmated Plovers were seen at Inwood Hill Park’s mudflat area on Friday, 
2nd Aug. and the observers there counted up to 6 of this less-commonly found 
(although of course very common for the local region, including shores of the 
southern sections of N.Y. City in particular) migrant-in-Manhattan itself. This 
location has been fairly productive for waders (a.k.a. shorebirds to most U.S. 
birders) and could well produce some surprises as the watching there goes 
along: thanks to those who have been at that site!

The earlier sighting, on Saturday, July 27, of a female Cerulean Warbler seen 
at Riverside Park on Manhattan’s far west edge (it is adjacent to the Hudson 
river) came from one of our keenest & most active Manhattan birders, who is 
also an active student & interpreter of migratory & other avian behaviors. 
This, as are the others in the following week, are all well within expected & 
known phenology for southbound migration in this species, & in particular for 
this region. Like so many birds in their southward movements (in & from the N. 
hemisphere!) the “fall” movements can begin as early as summer is starting on 
calendars, & also continues in protracted fashion, at least relative to the 
greater urgency of spring/northward migration for a majority of species. It van 

Already seen this “fall” (as of 8/3 ) in 3 Manhattan parks, there have now been 
multiple CERULEAN Warblers found in this county (borough) with at least one in 
Central Park, after several others in other well-wooded parks of Manhattan this 
week; those several Ceruleans also joined, at least by Saturday/3rd, by a 
minimum of 17 additional warbler species for Manhattan/New York County (and at 
least 16 of all the species were recorded in Central Park alone over 3 days of 
observations.  As has been pointed out, many if not all of these species are 
ones that can & do nest in proximity to N.Y. City & nearby; the 
more-boreal-nesting species of warblers haven’t started to come down, not in 
any notable numbers, if at all. Some of the other species, appearing now, are 
within the expected & typical southbound flight periods, & at least a few are 
in the thick of their (also, for some, more-protracted) southbound migrations 

Two of the 3 Cerulean Warblers known for these past several days in Manhattan 
are / have been first-fall female-looking birds, & one was an adult male in 
good-looking condition. It is well within a normal migration period for the 
species, and this is a rather scarce but annually-found migrant in N.Y. City 
including New York County and Manhattan. In addition, slightly more of this 
species were being found this year in migration in N.Y. City. This species 
breeds in good numbers, & with success this year, within 50 miles from 
Manhattan, a small number even rather nearer than that, with some in well-known 
nearly colonial locations, & others not well-known & less clsutered as nesting 
communities. This is also a species being detected at least as a wanderer & 
potential breeder a bit farther northeast than it used to be, howeever as with 
many contemporary bird observations, this could be partially a result of 
increased observer efforts and increases in surveying as well as documentation 
efforts. Each of the 3 latest of migrant Ceruleans in Manhattan was nicely 
documented.  There were Cerulean Warblers in Riverside, Central, & Fort 
Washington Park[s] in the past week. This is an excellent showing of the 
species (here) for fall/southbound migration; more typically & annually seen in 
spring-northbouund stopovers in N.Y. County. 

None of the warbler species noted below is very “early” in now being found in 
N.Y. City & stopping off on the way south (modest exceptions noted below) The 
prime month for highest diversity of American warblers in this area is still 
the month of August, with that diversity increasing as the month moves along 
(this is not to be confused with sheer numbers of total migrating warblers, 
numbers of individuals, as that can be very high with for example September’s 
flush of such species as Blackpolls increasing, of Yellow-rumped, and a few 
other rather common and numerous warbler species… but the diverse number of 
species seen on migration hereabouts is this month, with carryover into Sept.; 
this is being watched to learn whether more & more species, in their aggegate, 
begin to shift phenologies to later southbound flight-calendar periods… and 
there is some evidence that some may be, or have been. For now, however, 
watching in August continues to provide a broad spectrum of this group of 
migrant songbirds - as well as many other ‘land’ bird species, again increasing 
as August goes along & to a certian extent based on large-scale weather issues 
(such as possible hurricane or tropical storm developments & other large-scale 
weather happenings).

The additional warbler species showing in Manhattan &/or more broadly in New 
York County (which takes in several other smaller islands, and waters adjacent 
to Manhattan out to portions of the upper New York harbor) include as of 
Saturday, 8/3:

Blue-winged Warbler (multiple; more than 5 in Central Park alone, & had 
appeared in some locations prior to August 1st)
Northern Parula (N.B., a few individuals of this species summered in Manhattan 
parks, with zero evidence or suggestion of breeding; slightly early to expect 
this in migration)
Yellow Warbler (regular breeder in N.Y. City; many have been reappearing in 
Manhattan in the last 2 weeks+)
Chestnut-sided Warbler (several, including one in Central Park, north end, very 
slightly early, but not at all unprecedented)
Magnolia Warbler (N.B., at least one male Magnolia was potentially summering in 
Manhattan, although with moderate intervals between sightings; this species 
also breeds within 50 miles of N.Y. City)
Black-throated Green Warbler (still breeding within under 50 miles of N.Y. City)
Blackburnian Warbler (as preceding species; several locations, & including now 
at least 2 adult males)
Prairie Warbler (several, including in the Ramble of Central Park as well as n. 
end of Central Park & in 2 other parks)
Black-and-white Warbler (multiple - to lower-double-digits, & in multiple parks)
American Redstart (uncommonly-recorded but now annual breeder in some areas in 
N.Y. City; this was being seen in the multiple prior to Aug. 1st, now in 
numbers exceeding 40 in all of New York County.)
Worm-eating Warbler (at least several, including in Central Park’s Ramble, Aug. 
Ovenbird (slightly early, but hardly unprecedented southbound in early Aug.)
Northern Waterthrush (multiple & rapidly increased numbers normal in Aug.)
Louisiana Waterthrush (this species has been on southbound migration for 1 
month or more, as of 8/3.)
Common Yellowthroat (regular breeder in N.Y. City, modest numbers in a few 
areas, possibly a few are migrants in addition to these breeders)
Hooded Warbler (N.B., breeds & does so in numbers within 40 miles of N.Y. City)
Canada Warbler (N.B., while probably uncommon within the immediate region as a 
breeder, this species does breed within 50-60 miles of N.Y. City, & more so 
less than 90 miles out.)

A further note to above, a fair number of these above-noted warbler species are 
breeding in areas just to the north & northeast as well as west, of N.Y. City - 
this in straight-line actual distances to points out of that city, as measured 
starting from the city perimeters, which include the Bronx-Westchester County 
line, the western edges of Manhattan, & the eastern edges of Randall’s Island & 
etc.  Also, all but 2 of the species noted above were present in Central Park, 
Manhattan; however many were also present in a number of other parks, & a few 
in some smaller areas as well.  The 2 species of warbler not located in Central 
at all were a Hooded, and a Canada Warbler, however either one could also be 
recorded in Central with increasing observations as August arrives, as well as 
the obvious fresh migrations of this month - which will increase greatly as the 
month rolls on.

A cool front (all being relative, and what the meteorologist still call a cold 
front) passage occurred on the night of 31 July into morning of 1st of August, 
& a correspondingly good (esp. for date) migration in overnight to early 
morning hours in that time frame; in just migrating warblers, the dominant 
warblers on the move were almost certainly Yellow Warbler, followed somewhat 
colsely by American Redstart, with ‘waterthrush species’ also in the higher 
range of numbers of warblers on the move… all fully expected for date, & with 
various other migrants, some of those of course also warblers & also in numbers 
on that night & next morning, but (other warbler spp.) in somewhat less-obvious 
numbers. In addition (!) it can be mentioned that a couple of the above warbler 
species, those noted to 3rd of August (Saturday), may possibly have been 
summering locally, but it is as likely or more so that all were actual migrants 
for this period, & not “floaters” or lingering birds from some site in or near 
the city, or within N.Y. County; an example of this could be a Black-throated 
Green which is a bit early but, in very low density is not at all unknown as a 
migrant by now. 

Some readers may find interesting the summary placed in the public archive from 
the JerseyBirds list-serve, written up by Cape May’s own Tom Reed, & which in a 
fairly succincy way sums up a bit of what I am pointing at in parts of the 
above & a few other recent posts here, to this NY list. Note, among other 
aspects, what warbler species were being seen from Cape May, N.J. even as of 
late July, & that only the Swainson’s Warbler is (of course) especially 
remarkable in terms of occurrence seasonally etc.!

Additional species being found in Manhattan, & N.Y. County in August (so far) 
include (but are *not* limited to):

Double-crested Cormorant (common to almost-abundant visitor on all N.Y. City 
waters, & as fly-overs, & found at some roosts)
Great Blue Heron (somewhat scant in summer, but appears regularly, & more so in 
last few weeks in various N.Y. County sites)
Great Egret (comments as for next species, with many seen regularly feeding in 
several of the larger parks & their waterbodies)
Snowy Egret (regular in N.Y. County in the warmer months, both as fly-overs & 
feeding in some locations, every day in summer)
Green Heron (regular nester in N.Y. County; some success in Central Park in 
2019, & more so in other, less-disturbed locations)
Black-crowned Night-Heron (very common milder-period visitor to many areas in 
New York County)
Yellow-crowned Night-Heron (a regular, if somewhat scant, nester in N.Y. County)
Black Vulture (as observations from northern Manhattan, primarily & all as 
Turkey Vulture (fairly regular, increasingly all-year-round for the area; some 
may also roost at times in some Manhattan locations)
Canada Goose (regular nester in N.Y. County)
Wood Duck (a few are typically resident &/or summer in N.Y. County including in 
Central Park; also recent passages of more than a few, which is typical in 
August, & sometimes in July)
Gadwall (likely regular but not often-detected nester in N.Y. County)
American Black Duck (relatively scant so far)
Mallard (regular nester in N.Y. County)
Northern Shoveler (few, & staying mostly rather quietly lurking in shaded areas)
Osprey (moderately regular in all warmer months around N.Y. County, & August 
begins the start of migration-in-earnest for this increasingly numerous 
species, which breeds in N.Y. City)
Bald Eagle (uncommon but regular now in summer; many sightings are near & over 
the Hudson river, with others at other fly-over locations)
Red-tailed Hawk (annual & now-near-common breeder & year-round resident of all 
of New York City)
Killdeer (breeds annually in N.Y. County; most readily detected in summer at 
the isles of N.Y. County not named Manhattan, yet is also seen regularly on 
Manhattan in summer, by keen observers in good areas for the species)
Greater Yellowlegs (regular migrant, mainly detected as fly-bys, but also 
comments as for following species, with which it can be seen, as well as 
independent of that smaller relative)
Lesser Yellowlegs (mostly as fly-bys, heard & seen, but also at least some 
stop-overs; seen in Manhattan, but more so on the smaller isles of N.Y. County 
- Randall’s, Governors, & nearby)
Solitary Sandpiper (regular, annual migrant & more than a few already found; 
also may linger extensively in select, relatively undisturbed areas if feeding 
is particularly rich; this can include sites in surprisingly busy areas or 
unexpected urban-area locations at times)
Spotted Sandpiper (common annual migrant & is occsionally noted apparently 
summering in N.Y. County, decent numbers recently, including at some Manattan 
Semipalmated Sandpiper (very much as for next species, below, although detected 
more in select sites, as compared with Least, which may drop in “anywhere” - at 
least briefly)
Least Sandpiper (regular annual migrant thru N.Y. County, nice numbers in a few 
locations & present to this month, more also sure to stop in at select sites)
Laughing Gull (regular now in or around N.Y. Harbor area, & elsewhere 
semi-regular, some are at the Central Park reservoir if watched for, best 
sought there mostly midday hours)
Ring-billed Gull (many more have been re-appaering; now fairly common in N.Y. 
[American] Herring Gull (has nested in Manhattan, including attempts in 2019)
Great Black-backed Gull (fairly common all-year-round for N.Y. City in general)
Common Tern (Goverors Island, in particular, where nesting success occurred)
Black Skimmer (nests in N.Y. City at a small number of known breeding sites; 
will wander widely when feeding, some even if/when also tending to young 
['feral'] Rock Pigeon (common nester in N.Y. County)
Mourning Dove (regular nester in N.Y. County)
American Kestrel (regular nester in N.Y. County)
Peregrine Falcon (regular nester in N.Y. County)
Yellow-billed Cuckoo (breeds in some areas in N.Y. City; also a notoriously 
erratic species moving at odd times, thus uncategorized as “early” even for 
N.Y. County in Åugust)
Eastern Screech Owl (wild resident, breeds on Manhattan in limited no’s.)
Chimney Swift (nests in N.Y. City; recently massing in modest no’s. over some 
Manhattan locations)
Ruby-throated Hummingbird (at least several, and not too early now for some to 
be ‘wandering' or even moving; this species has nested within N.Y. County; 
observed thru 8/3)
Belted Kingfisher (has nested in N.Y. County, but some could well be wandering 
- or some moving now, even in August)
Red-bellied Woodpecker (regular nester in N.Y. County, increased in last 
decade, & more so in past 3 decades in N.Y. City & more generally well into the 
Downy Woodpecker (regular nester in N.Y. County)
Hairy Woodpecker (uncommon but still regular nester in N.Y. County)
Yellow-shafted Flicker (regular nester in N.Y. County)
Eastern Wood-Pewee (nested in Manhattan)
Empidonax Flycatcher (few so far, & some may now be unidentified w/out 
vocalization heard)
Eastern Phoebe (1 was reported recently)
Great Crested Flycatcher (nested in Manhattan)
Eastern Kingbird (regular N.Y. County nester)
Yellow-throated Vireo (slightly early migrator - & has scantily & 
mostly-undetected well been a recent nester in Manhattan)
Warbling Vireo (fairly common nester in Manhattan)
Red-eyed Vireo (uncommon but annual nester in Manhattan; at least one 
successful nest w/young in Central Park this season, & likely several successes 
in northern Manhattan)
Blue Jay (common nesting species)
American Crow (nests in Manhattan)
Fish Crow (nests in Manhattan)
Purple Martin (several; this species is enjoying increases in the region, & can 
be wandering or also on the move in August and also later, to fall)
Tree Swallow (nests in N.Y. County, also can be on the move thru the summer 
Northern Rough-winged Swallow (nested in Manhattan)
Barn Swallow (many; multiple nests w/young in N.Y. County)
** (N.B., not noted for Manhattan as of 8/3 but very much a possibility by now 
in migration, Bank Swallows are moving in at least modest no’s. & are being 
seen headed south in some N.Y. City locations along with greater no’s. of some 
of above hirundine spp.; in Manhattan fly-by swallows or martins may be 
detected with efffort, at or near to the 2 main river-estuaries, East, & Hudson)
Black-capped Chickadee (now-uncommon nesting species)
Tufted Titmouse (nests in Manhattan)
White-breasted Nuthatch (nests in Manhattan)
Carolina Wren (multiple nests for Manhattan as is typical of this species)
House Wren (agressively nesting in Manhattan & N.Y. County; multiple fledgeings 
for various sites)
** Marsh Wren (intriguing sightings, not from this week, but in this summer 
breeding-period found in Manhattan; & to be watched-for in N.Y. County)
Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (at least several in Central & Riverside Parks as of 
Thursday, 8/1; this species has nested, though scarcely, in Manhattan & N.Y. 
County to very recent years)
Wood Thrush (multiple, & more than 8 nests known to have fledged young in 
Manhattan this summer, several of those in Central Park even with all the 
typical disturbances of that location)
American Robin (common to near-abundant nester in Manhattan & N.Y. County; 
multi-brooded for a majority found nesting here)
Gray Catbird (widespread nester; some even in smaller greenspaces of Manhattan 
& more so in all of the largest parks)
Northern Mockingbird (regular & fairly widespread nester in N.Y. County)
Brown Thrasher (scant nester nowadays in N.Y. County, but several known 
successes again, remains very secretive by nests, in even some 
highly-trafficked areas within busy public parks)
Cedar Waxwing (many nest, although sightings in for example early June in 
Manhattan & N.Y. County are not guarantors of breeding as this can be a very 
late-season nester in all locations)
** Scarlet Tanager (not reported - ? - in this month so far in Manhattan but at 
least several sightings in Manhattan well into typical breeding-season, & 
should be watched carefully in such areas)
Eastern Towhee (now very scarce breeder in N.Y. County, at least one successful 
nesting in Central Park, & that in proximity to a very frequently-transversed 
pathway, yet entirely hidden)
Chipping Sparrow (uncommon to scarce nester in N.Y. County; several fledgings 
from Central Park & park areas by the Hudson river in northern Manhattan as 
well as other islands in the county; this species may be slightly increasing in 
some of these sites, while facing obvious difficulty in nesting in such busy 
locations as Central Park, although it does attempt nesting there annually, 
sometimes with modest successes.)
Song Sparrow (fairly widespread nester in N.Y. County)
Swamp Sparrow (not known to nest in N.Y. County, yet a few sightings well 
within breeding season suggest watching this closely in the summer & late 
spring; several sightings within just the past week+ in the county)
White-throated Sparrow (not known to have bred in N.Y. County; this species is 
fairly regular, usually in scant numbers, lingering-summering in a variety of 
N.Y. City & New York County sites, which include Central Park & others)
Northern Cardinal (regular nester in N.Y. County)
Rose-breasted Grosbeak (a potential breeder in Manhattan, this species breeds 
annually with success in the Bronx including within a few miles of parts of 
Indigo Bunting (several sightings in August so far; this species has nested in 
Manhattan, but scarcely known or detected as such in recent years; it also may 
be wandering or moving now, in early August, although this is one of many, many 
migrants that show a potentially very-protracted “fall” migration period, 
starting - typically - in mid to late summer, and going on well into the fall - 
with indications that some may be lingering more as climate change occurs for 
this area, through all of the Americas, and of course world-wide.)
Red-winged Blackbird (regular nester in N.Y. County)
Common Grackle (regular nester in N.Y. County)
Brown-headed Cowbird (once warblers are migrating in some numbers as is now 
happening, so are some of this species)
Orchard Oriole (several; although this is a scant to uncommon nester in N.Y. 
County, including for 2019, it is also a known early-mover with many heading 
far south in the month of August)
Baltimore Oriole (rather comon nester in N.Y. County; double-digits nest 
succeses in Central Park alone in 2019, with more in multiple additional sites, 
as is typical)
Purple Finch (unusual in Aug. in New York County, 1 was detected as a fly-by, 
calling & seen for early-flight, 8/3, Central Park north-end; this species 
could potentially turn up in any month of the year, as with other irruptive 
species that are hardy for all local seasons)
House Finch (regular nester in N.Y. County)
American Goldfinch (regular, if uncommonly detected nester in N.Y. County)
House Sparrow (ubiquitous very established feral introduction & sadly 
pestiferous breeder, usurping numbers of native birds & resident in all of N.Y. 

“Sealy” the Harbor Seal is being seen again lately at Inwood (northern 
Manhattan’s) park’s 'Muscota Marsh' area & nearby the ‘lagoon’ a bit west of 
the Broadway bridge and Broadway at W. 215th Street, a short way east of the 
Hudson river inlet of same; this is an individual who’s been here before, & is 
well-loved by area seal-watchers & just about everyone. 

N.Y. County butterflies; recently many species appearing, & some are a bit more 
notable as being less-regular:  

Cloudless Sulphur (these are the very large, near-Monarch sized clear lime-y 
lemon-y yellow species; they are more-or-less annual in late summer in our 
region, and can be seen into the fall in some years, but late summer is an 
ideal time to watch for this species; hint: if you are not sure that the 
sulphur you are seeing is very large, you may not be seeing this but a 
more-common smaller species that are related & are at least 30% smaller or more 
so… this large sulphur species also shows no dark edgings or markings when 
flying by, and in-flight sightings are the more-usual sighting by far, with 
perched individuals a matter of great luck &/or much work & patience); several 
sightings of this in New York County, with the most-productive for this in 
recent days at Governors Island, including “The Hills” - & possible anywhere & 
esp. for those who recognize this species in flight readily.

Variegated Fritillary (this species is actually NOT rare in New York County, 
with the rather recent ‘discovery’ that it appears to be annual at - at least - 
Governors Island, often within a few hundred yards of ferry docks at the high 
meadow areas of “Fort Jay” & potentially anywhere there; also like the 
preceding species, has turned up in Manhattan, including some photographed 
indivuals by various observers at diferent sites & days; as with the preceding, 
this species is most expected in late summer into early fall, but could & has 
turned up outside those particular phenological parameters; it appears to be 
more “expected” now than the preceding southern-affinity species, but as 
stated, in particular sites, rather than as a fly-by that might show up 
‘anywhere’, although as with anything with wings & migratory or wandering 
tendencies, that too is a possibility.  -  Also appearing in the last week or 
so in N.Y. County (including in Central Park in Manhattan) have been:  

Black Swallowtail, Eastern Tiger Swallowtail, Spicebush Swallowtail, Cabbage 
White, Orange Sulphur, Gray Hairstreak, Red-banded Hairstreak, Eastern 
Tailed-Blue, Summer Azure, American Snout (this is also a species of note, 
having an ‘irruptive' summer, with again some sightings of the species far 
north of its typical or expected range, & being seen in good numbers in select 
N.Y. City locations, including many in Central Park in Manhattan and in dozens 
& dozens of additional locations… if someone wants to visit 
“snout-central-station” of N.Y. City, that area would be the grove of 
old-growth huge American Hackberry trees that is within a part of Conference 
House Park at the southern end of Staten Island / Richmond County, N.Y. City - 
which is also near the southernmost location in all of New York State. The 
hackberry groves there are not far from the old stone conference house, an 
historic site, and can be seen generally within 1/4 mile & closer, near the 
park’s main entry / access; also in the same groves may possibly be either 
Hackberry Emperor & Tawny Emperor, each of which butterfly species uses, as 
does American Snout, the hackberry as the larval [caterpillar] host-plant. 
Those trees are also found widely scattered throughout N.Y. City, occasionally 
in groves or ‘plantings’, but nowhere else in N.Y. State likely as large in 
such numbers as at Conference House), Pearl Crescent, Question Mark (having a 
rather good season, generally and may be watched-for as a migrant moving south 
at some locations, in addition to summer-residents), Eastern Comma, American 
Lady, Painted Lady, Red Admiral, Common Buckeye (rather notable for numbers 
this year in all of the northeast, & has been seen in N.Y. City, including 
Central Park, for some many weeks, in numbers at times, this species can be 
found in some years to late fall, if weather allows - it is more common to our 
south, as is so of many species known from N.Y.), Red-spotted Purple (this 
species & its congener, usually called “White Admiral” and the latter found 
generally northward, are having a very good summer, & many of the former taxon 
have been appearing in the area, including multiples in Central Park, to many 
observers’ delight), Hackberry Emperor (Central Park Ramble, but this is even 
more likely at select locations at Inwood Hill in northern Manhattan where it 
is annual, although like many butterflies & other insect groups, numbers can 
fluctuate radically from year to year, in multiple well-observed locations), 
Monarch (likely our best-known & most-watched butterfly species, many have been 
observed in recent days & weeks, & this seems a -good!- trend for this year in 
this highly-migratory, multi-generation-per-year species, which for our eastern 
North American populations still winter primarily in higher-elevation 
coniferous woods in central Mexico, where despite federal protections, the 
local protection can be tough to enforce, and all-importantly, these wintering 
& migratory populations of this species may be subject to issues arising from 
climate-change & many other issues which affect all life & can be complex; 
meanwhile, watch for the Monarchs which will be & may already be starting to 
move south in numbers, through the late summer & especially as autumn begins, 
they are as amazing as migratory birds in many ways!): Skippers: Silver-spotted 
Skipper, Wild Indigo Duskywing, Common Sootywing, Fiery Skipper, Tawny-edged 
Skipper, Peck's Skipper, Sachem, Zabulon Skipper, Dun Skipper = at least 31 
species of skippers & other butterflies in N.Y. County (hint - Governors Island 
in particular, but also many other locations on Manhattan, can be very good at 
times for a variety of species of insects, including some that some will 
consider “rare” for this county; patience & close observation will pay extra 
dividends, and warmer days of SW or W. winds can be particularly productive, as 
can observing at differing times of the day, from early - on hot days - to very 
late in the day where sun is available; some of these species will be most 
readily observed at certain hours of each day, & less so at other times.)

Many, many, many other insects in hugely diverse groups & families and species 
are being seen now in N.Y. City including in New York County, & there are 
increasing numbers of bird-observers who also have taken up the observation of 
various groups of insects & other arthropods; if for no other reasons than the 
fact that these can be numerous or even abundant in summer season, on days when 
birds seem less abundant, & also for their beauty and the many lessons any 
life-forms can offer to we '2-leggeds’. On insect identifications, many on-line 
tools are available, two of those -which are non-profit- include the websites 
iNaturalist, and BugGuide. 

Thank you to the many dozens & dozens of dedicated naturalist-birders who have 
been afield & quietly & considerately found a great variety of birds, bugs, & 
all manner of life on the move.

"Once upon a time, when women were birds, there was the simple understanding 
that to sing at dawn and to sing at dusk was to heal the world through joy. The 
birds still remember what we have forgotten, that the world is meant to be 
celebrated.” - Terry Tempest Williams (contemporary activist, and author of 
many books)

"The time to save a species is while it is still common” - Rosalie Edge 
(founder of famed Hawk Mountain Sanctuary, in Pennsylvania)

good birding,

Tom Fiore
manhattan -
& elswehere


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